Multiple utilities of infographics in undergraduate students’ process-based writing


  • Jenell Krishnan University of California, Irvine
  • Undarmaa Maamuujav University of California, Irvine
  • Penelope Collins University of California, Irvine



universal design for learning, multimodality, writing pedagogy, infographics, undergraduate writing, english


Although infographics have been used for educational purposes, their specific use for teaching process-based writing in undergraduate writing courses is not documented in the literature. When integrating infographics into a process-based
writing instructional approach, they may offer students multiple means of representation, engagement, and expression – universal design for learning principles. We examined one undergraduate writing course that integrated infographics into a process-based writing approach to understand student experiences and uses of this multimodal communication form. Results show that infographics have unique benefits and challenges to supporting student writing. Results also reveal that students used their infographics for revising, transferring, and rethinking the content of their subsequent, text-only research papers. This work has implications for college composition pedagogy.

Author Biographies

Jenell Krishnan, University of California, Irvine

Jenell Krishnan is a project scientist for the National WRITE (Writing Research to Improve Teaching and Evaluation) Center in the School of Education at the University of California, Irvine, USA. Her research is at the intersection of literacy, instruction, and technology. She has taught in secondary, community college, and university contexts.

Undarmaa Maamuujav, University of California, Irvine

Undarmaa Maamuujav is a doctoral candidate in the School of Education at the University of California, Irvin, USA. Her research focuses on language, literacy, and L2 writing

Penelope Collins, University of California, Irvine

Penelope Collins is an associate professor in the School of Education at the University of California, Irvine, USA. Her research examines the development of language and literacy skills for children from linguistically diverse backgrounds. Currently, she is involved in projects on effective instructional interventions and the use of technology to promote academic success for English learners.


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How to Cite

Krishnan, J. ., Maamuujav, U. ., & Collins, P. (2021). Multiple utilities of infographics in undergraduate students’ process-based writing. Writing and Pedagogy, 12(2-3), 369–394.




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