Writing and Pedagogy https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP <p><em>Writing &amp; Pedagogy</em> provides an internationally-oriented forum for discussion and dissemination of knowledge focused on the nature of writing and its development across the lifespan. It is innovative in being international in scope, spanning levels of education, and in advancing the theory and practice of writing pedagogy in varying language environments. <a href="https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/about">Read more</a>.</p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Writing and Pedagogy 1756-5839 <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> Culture and L2 writing https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/19538 <p>Culture in second language (L2) writing has been researched extensively, though mostly under the purview of contrastive rhetoric and focused on text and contrastive genre analysis (Connor, 1996, 2004, 2008; Kaplan, 2005). Research has also focused on problematizing culture in reference to L2 writing (Atkinson, 1999, 2003; Kubota, 1999). These foci indicate reader-instructor rather than student perspectives: how L2 writers themselves perceive cultural impacts on writing. This study undertakes to fill this gap, investigating L2 student perceptions of such impacts. Study participants (n = 36), students in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing course at a Canadian university, took part in semistructured interviews and reflective writing. Data analysis identified six broad categories of cultural factors affecting student writing: (1) organizational structure as a fixed method; (2) supporting and writing arguments; (3) creating a stronger voice in writing; (4) adjusting to a new academic culture; (5) understanding clarity in academic writing in English; and (6) developing content: quality versus quantity. Findings underscore student perceptions of a monolithic, essentialist view of culture in academic writing. This is an important consideration when designing a student-centred L2 writing pedagogy that addresses student needs. Based on the findings, the article further explores implications for L2 writing instruction.</p> Subrata Kumar Bhowmik Anita Chaudhuri Gregory Tweedie Marcia Kim Xiaoli Liu Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 223–255 223–255 10.1558/wap.19538 Enabling practices at the centre https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/19539 <p>The recent focus on threshold concepts in writing studies indicates the field’s growing commitment to engaging writing-based threshold concepts in the daily work of teaching and learning to facilitate writing transfer. However, although there is growing evidence of robust scholarly work in this area, research on the pedagogical importance of these concepts to the writing development and tutoring of L2 students is still in its nascent stages. To address this gap, this paper first presents findings from a research study that aims to understand how writing centre tutors addressed the needs of L2 students in tutoring sessions and the extent to which threshold-oriented language appeared in the content of the conference summaries. After discussing the findings, the paper proposes a threshold concept-based framework for tutoring L2 writers involving two established concepts: ‘writers’ histories, processes, and identities vary’ and ‘writing is informed by prior experiences.’ In addition, a new model of the conference summary as a reflective tool to promote writing transfer is presented along with a discussion of emergent writing centre-oriented concepts that reimagine the role of the tutor as an ‘expert-outsider’ and the L2 student as ‘informed novice.'</p> Gita DasBender Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 257–278 257–278 10.1558/wap.19539 A genre and discourse-based examination of audio commentary https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/17841 <p>Providing comments on student writing is one of the most important, difficult, and time-consuming activities instructors undertake. Many studies have examined written feedback, and much research has shown the problems associated with this form, ranging from time spent providing thoughtful feedback to students’ confusion about the commentary. Some instructors have used audio commentary to address these issues. Audio commentary has been researched for years; the results have indicated that students prefer audio commentary, and it is perceived as more personal and positive by instructors and students. To date, little research has looked closely at audio commentary to understand if or how it might differ from written in form and function. This research uses as multicase approach and genre analysis to examine the organisational moves and discourse analysis uncover why audio commentary is perceived differently by both producers and consumers of this genre. Results show that audio commentary does not differ in form or function from its written counterpart, but metadiscursive features may play a role in how the genre is perceived by both instructors and students, providing real evidence of how audio commentary is different from written.</p> Melody Denny Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 279–306 279–306 10.1558/wap.17841 What do students think about their own writing? Insights for teaching new college writers https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/19540 <p>Students face multiple challenges when transitioning from high school to college writing, with new content, audiences, genres, and task expectations. Psychometric researchers have shown that self-efficacy, competency, and affective factors can help or hinder students during this transition, but little previous research examines what students themselves say about their writing and writing experiences. This study analyses the content of 248 essays from first-year composition writers who discussed their writing identities, processes, products, and journeys. Our findings show differences between writers who view themselves positively and negatively. Instructors can use this information to design meaningful prompts, utilize process writing activities, and engage students in meaningful reflection.</p> Grant Eckstein Dana Ferris Katherina Sibbald Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 307–339 307–339 10.1558/wap.19540 Writing measures and outcomes in CLIL and EMI https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/17755 <p>This study utilizes a systematic review approach to examine current research in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and English-medium instruction (EMI). Studies were examined for their use of language-related and content-related writing measurement and outcomes. Findings on CLIL/EMI writing measurement shows that studies have utilized a variety of methods for measuring language, but measurement of the content dimension is limited. While some studies in the review combine multiple types of writing measures, CLIL writing research often does not simultaneously assess both the language and content dimensions of writing. For writing outcomes, the reviewed studies show CLIL/EMI generally equals or exceeds traditional language classrooms and that CLIL/EMI instruction leads toward growth in some but not all (i.e. accuracy), language-related metrics. However, regarding the content dimension, the findings are mixed and show CLIL/EMI writing generally does not communicate disciplinary content knowledge appropriately. It is recommended that future research gives more attention to measuring both the language and content dimensions of writing while also incorporating new methods for measuring discipline-specific content in writing. It is also recommended that instructors increase their language awareness and reconsider how disciplinary writing is taught in their CLIL/EMI classroom.</p> Keith M. Graham Zohreh R. Eslami Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 341–368 341–368 10.1558/wap.17755 Multiple utilities of infographics in undergraduate students’ process-based writing https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/18814 <p>Although infographics have been used for educational purposes, their specific use for teaching process-based writing in undergraduate writing courses is not documented in the literature. When integrating infographics into a process-based <br />writing instructional approach, they may offer students multiple means of representation, engagement, and expression – universal design for learning principles. We examined one undergraduate writing course that integrated infographics into a process-based writing approach to understand student experiences and uses of this multimodal communication form. Results show that infographics have unique benefits and challenges to supporting student writing. Results also reveal that students used their infographics for revising, transferring, and rethinking the content of their subsequent, text-only research papers. This work has implications for college composition pedagogy.</p> Jenell Krishnan Undarmaa Maamuujav Penelope Collins Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 369–394 369–394 10.1558/wap.18814 ‘I do the peer review by myself’ https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/20355 <p>In response to increasing interest in Vygotskian sociocultural theory in second-language learning (Lantolf and Thorne, 2006; Swain, Kinnear, and Steinman, 2015) and the call for understanding language-learning processes in relation to contexts surrounding individuals (e.g., Polio and Williams, 2009; Ferris and Hedgcock, 2014), this study adopts a sociocultural approach – more specifically, an activity theory (Leont’ev, 1981) framework – to explore an undergraduate student’s approach to L2 writing in a preparatory writing course. Using a single case study design (Duff, 2014), I investigated how a student from China learned to write academic papers that met the academic norms in an English as a second language (ESL) writing class in an American university. Specifically, I analyzed how his writing activity aligned with his instructor’s proposed approach to a writing task. Through the analysis of course materials, the participant’s written work, observations, email communications, and interviews, I tracked how his agency (Bhowmik, 2016; Casanave, 2012; Lee, 2008; Saenkhum, 2016) as a writer developed over his first semester in the ESL program. Findings indicate that while the participant did not follow the operations assigned by the instructor, he acted strategically to accomplish selected parts of his writing assignments. His mediated actions were driven by his goals and motives that were understood from within his social and cultural environments, and interacted with each other in a dynamic and constructive manner. Overall, the study underscores the need for flexible approaches to writing instruction and the usefulness of employing activity theory as a framework in studying L2 writing processes.</p> Magda Tigchelaar Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 395–422 395–422 10.1558/wap.20355 Research conceptualization in doctoral and master’s research writing https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/19542 <p>Research conceptualization is challenging for doctoral and master’s writers, particularly multilingual students engaging in thesis writing or writing for publication. In doctoral and master’s student writing, research conceptualization appears in three genres: problem statements, research proposals and introduction sections or chapters. Swale’s (1990; Feak and Swales, 2011) CARS model is most often used to analyze conceptualization in these genres. While very useful as an analytical tool, the CARS model does not translate well to pedagogy. I argue that Merriam’s (2009) problem/purpose statement and questions (PPS&amp;Q) format provides a flexible and accessible technique to make the process of research conceptualization visible and to help students focus their research throughout the writing process. Navigating problem formulation and gap spotting requires highly complex literacies and Merriam’s method allows students to begin simply and build complexity. While genre visibility provides a way for doctoral and master’s students to access high-level literacies demands, it can also be formulaic and constraining and needs to be taught with critical awareness.</p> Cecile Badenhorst Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 423–444 423–444 10.1558/wap.19542 TLC in a Russian secondary school https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/19543 <p>This pedagogical reflection describes the interactions within, and effectiveness of, an instructional approach for writing – the teaching/learning cycle (TLC). The instruction takes place in a northwestern, midsized city of Russia in a secondary school specializing in English with a 10th grade/form group who self-selected into a strand for the sciences (i.e., students take additional courses in the sciences versus the arts). The reflection combines Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory and concept of molar activity with TLC to demonstrate how various systems influence the teacher and students in a secondary-schooling context. The TLC approach assisted the Russian-speaking students in the improvement of English persuasive writing. The molar, or propelling, interactions in the writing lessons demonstrate a fluidity of knowledge across the systems of the ecology. The study may be of use to teachers instructing writing in English and to comparative education scholars who focus on classroom interaction to inform their work on culture.</p> Margaret A. Berg Olga Leonidova Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 445–467 445–467 10.1558/wap.19543 Examining the (in)compatibility of formal project report writing and notions of agency and creativity in the written work of chemistry majors at a Singaporean university https://journal.equinoxpub.com/WAP/article/view/20356 <p>I set out in this article to address the question of whether it is possible to be creative and agentive when the written content involves information of a factual, statistical, or empirical nature. In examining the matter of creativity and agentivity in such writing, I seek to locate my understanding of both areas in the realm of the situated, subjective, and the reflexive, and the expression of creativity as an enactment and enablement of these three qualitative dimensions through(out) the fluidity and contingency of the composing process and experience. My discussion first provides an account of my own reflexive positioning as a writing teacher. This section is followed by a review of relevant literature in the area of academic literacies and the way knowledge and disciplinarity as they are captured and naturalized in written text may be challenged for their supposed representation of static and depersonalized views of meaning. Thereafter I consider PW308 – a course in scientific project report writing – and feedback from a group of third-year chemistry students with respect to the situatedness of their individual experiences as they went about composing their project report.</p> Glenn Toh Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 12 2-3 469–486 469–486 10.1558/wap.20356