Self-regulated Learning, Metacognitive Awareness, and Argumentative writing
A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Keywords:SELF-REGULATION, METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS, ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING, STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING (SEM), EFL GRADUATE LEARNERS
The current study examined the relationships among self-regulated learning, metacognitive awareness, and EFL learners’ performance in argumentative writing. We collected data through two questionnaires (i.e., Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ); Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI)), and an argumentative writing task administered to 250 Iranian graduate students of TEFL in 11 universities across Iran. Using LISREL version 8.8, we ran structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the hypothesized relationships. The results revealed that although the SEM enjoyed a good fit on the hypothesized relationships among selfregulated learning, metacognitive awareness, and argumentative writing, the significant influence of metacognitive awareness and self-regulated learning on students’ argumentative writing performance could not be postulated. Finally, the pedagogical implications for writing instruction and research are discussed.
Abdollahzadeh, E., Amini Farsani, M., and Beikmohammadi, M. (2017). Argumentative writing behaviour of graduate EFL learners. Argumentation, 31 (4), 641-661. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-016-9415-5
Amini Farsani, M. and Babaii, E. (in press). EFL faculty members' research engagement: Voices from Iran. Research in PostComulsory Education.
Anani Sarab, M. R. and Amini Farsani, M. (2014). The relationship between writing strategies and personality types of graduate Iranian EFL learners. Applied Research on English Language, 3 (6), 69-84
Azevedo, R. and Whitherspoon, A. M. (2009). Self-regulated use of hypermedia. In A. Graesser, J. Dunlosky and D. Hacker (Eds), Handbook of Metacognition in Education, 319-339. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Berardi-Coletta, B., Buyer, L. S., Dominowski, R. L., and Rellinger, E. R. (1995). Metacognition and problem solving: A process-oriented approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 205-223. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-73220.127.116.11
Birjandi, P., and Malmir, A. (2009). The effect of task-based approach on the Iranian advanced EFL learners' narrative vs. expository Writing. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies, 1 (2), 1-26.
Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. Weinert and R. Kluwe (Eds), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Cognitive Development, 263-340. New York: Wiley.
Case, J., Gunstone, R., and Lewis, A. (2001). Students' metacognitive development in an innovative second-year chemical engineering course. Research in Science Education, 31 (3), 313-335. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013113807788
Devine, J., Railey, K., and Boshoff, P. (1993). The implications of cognitive models in L1 and L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 2, 203-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/1060-3743(93)90019-Y
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. London: Erlbaum.
Ellis, R. (2008). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., and Stevens, D. D. (1991). Making strategies and self-talk visible: Writing instruction in regular and special education classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 337-372. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312028002337
Flower, L. (1994). The Construction of Negotiated Meaning: A Social Cognitive Theory of Writing. Carbondale IL: Southern Illinois University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/358881
Flower, L. S., and Hayes, J. R. (1986). Writing research and the writer. American Psychologist, 41, 1106-1113. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1106
Garcia, T. and Pintrich, P. R. (1996). Assessing students' motivation and learning strategies in the classroom context: The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. In M. Birenbaum, and F. J. R. C. Dochy (Eds), Alternatives in Assessment of Achievements, Learning Processes and Prior Knowledge, 319-339. New York: Kluwer/Plenum. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0657-3_12
Georghiades, P. (2004). From the general to the situated: Three decades of metacognition. International Journal of Science Education, 26 (3), 365-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/0950069032000119401
Grabe, W. (2001). Reading-writing relations: Theoretical perspectives and instructional practices. In D. Belcher and A. Hirvela (Eds), Linking Literacies: Perspectives on L2 Reading-Writing Connections, 15-47. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Graham, S. (2007). Writing. In P. Alexander and P. Winne (Eds), Handbook of Educational Psychology, 457-477. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Graham, S. and Harris, K. R. (2000). The role of self-regulation and transcription skills in writing and writing development. Educational Psychologist, 35, 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3501_2
Hatim, B. and Mason, I. (1990). Discourse and the Translator. New York: Longman Inc.
Hauks, A. (2018). Metacognition in language learning and teaching. In A. Hauks, B. Camila, and M. Dypedahl (Eds), Metacognition in Language Teaching and Learning. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351049146
Hirvela, A. (2017). Argumentation & second language writing: Are we missing the boat? Journal of Second Language Writing, 36, 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2017.05.002
Hoffman, B. and Spatariu, A. (2008). The influence of self-efficacy and metacognitive prompting on math problem-solving efficiency. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33 (4), 875-893. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.07.002
Jackson, N. (2004). Developing the concept of meta-learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International 41 (4), 391-403. https://doi.org/10.1080/1470329042000276995
Kaplan, A. (2008). Achievement motivation. In E. Anderman and L. H. Anderman (Eds), Psychology of Classroom Learning: An Encyclopedia (Vol. 1), 13-17. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.
Kasper, L. F. (1997). Assessing the metacognitive growth of ESL student writers. TESL EJ, 3 (1), 1-20.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Krettenauer, T. and Eichler, D. (2006). Adolescents' self-attributed moral emotions following a moral transgression: Relations with delinquency, confidence in moral judgment, and age. The British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 489-506. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151005X50825
Kuhn, D. (2005). Education for Thinking. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lu, W. J. (2006). Relationship between metacognitive strategies and English writing. Foreign Languages and Their Teaching, 9, 25-27.
Mauranen, A. (1993). Contrastive ESP rhetoric: Metatext in Finnish-English economics texts. English for Specific Purposes, 12, 3-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/0889-4906(93)90024-I
McCann, T. (1989). Student argumentative writing knowledge and ability at three grade levels. Research in Teaching in English, 23, 62-76.
Meijer, R. R. and Baneke, J. J. (2004). Analyzing psychopathology items: A case for nonparametric item response theory modelling. Psychological Methods, 9, 354-368. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.9.3.354
Metallidou, P. (2009). Pre-service and in-service teachers' metacognitive knowledge about problem-solving strategies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25 (1), 76-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.07.002
Meyer, H. (2004). Novice and expert teachers' conceptions of learners' prior knowledge. Science Education, 88 (6), 970-983. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20006
Mokhtari, K. and Reichard, C. A. (2002). Assessing students' metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94 (2), 249-259. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.168
Mokken, R. (1971). A Theory and Procedure of Scale Analysis with Applications in Political Research. The Hague. The Netherlands: Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110813203
Molenaar, I. W. and Sijtsma, K. (2000). MSP5 for Windows: A Program for Mokken Scale Analysis for Polytomous Items (version 5.0). Groningen. The Netherlands: ProGAMMA.
Negretti, R. (2012). Metacognition in student academic writing: A longitudinal study of metacognitive awareness and its relation to task perception and evaluation of performance. Written Communication, 29 (2), 142-179. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088312438529
Negretti, R. and Kuteeva, M. (2011). Fostering metacognitive genre awareness in L2 academic reading and writing: A case study of pre-service English teachers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 20 (2), 95-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2011.02.002
Nussbaum, E. M. and Kardash, C. M. (2005). The effects of goal instructions and texts on the generation of counterarguments during writing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97 (2), 157-169. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124
Paris, S. G. and Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B. Jones and L. Idol (Eds), Dimensions of Thinking and Cognitive Instruction, 15-51. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Phakiti, A. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. In A. Phakiti, P. De Costa, L. Plonsky, and S. Starfield (Eds), The Palgrave Handbook of Applied Linguistics Research Methodology, 459-500. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-59900-1_21
Pintrich, P. R. (1991). Student goal-orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. Advances in Motivation and Achievement: A Research Annual, 7, 371-385.
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich and M. Zeidner (Eds), Handbook of Self-regulation, 451-502. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50043-3
Puncochar, J. M. and Fox, P. W. (2004). Confidence in individual and group decision making: When 'two heads' are worse than one. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 582-591. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1992
Raphael, T. E., Englert, C. S., and Kirschner, B. W. (1989). Students' metacognitive knowledge about writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 23 (4), 343-379.
Resnick, L. (1987). Education and Learning to Think. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Sato, M. and Loewen, S. (2019). Towards evidence-based second language pedagogy: research proposals and pedagogical recommendations. In M. Sato and S. Loewen (Eds), Evidence-based Second Language Pedagogy: A Collection of Instructed Second Language Acquisition, 1-32. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351190558-1
Sharma, P. and Hannafin, M. J. (2004). Scaffolding critical thinking in an online course: An exploratory study. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31 (2), 181-208. https://doi.org/10.2190/TMC3-RXPE-75MY-31YG
Schraw, G. and Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 460-475. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1994.1033
Silva, T. (1993). Toward an understanding of the distinct nature of L2 writing: The ESL research. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587400
Teng, L. S. and Zhang, L. J. (2016). A questionnaire-based validation of multidimensional models of self-regulated learning strategies. Modern Language Journal, 100 (3), 674-701. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12339
Toulmin, S. (2003). The Uses of Argument (updated ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511840005
Tomlinson, C. A. and McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Veenman, M. J., Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., and Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1 (1), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-006-6893-0
Yore, L. D. and Treagust, D. F. (2006). Current realities and future possibilities: Language and science literacy - empowering research and informing instruction. International Journal of Science Education, 28 (2/3), 291-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690500336973
Zhang, L. J. (2013). Second language writing as and for second language learning. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22, 446-447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2013.08.010
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, and M. Zeidner (Eds), Handbook of Self-regulation: Theory, Research, and Applications, 13-39. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50031-7
Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmerman and D. H. Schunk (Eds), Self-regulated Learning and Academic Achievement, 1-38. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3618-4_1
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.