Obstacles to digital, multimodal pedagogy in rural high schools


  • Emily Howell Iowa State University Author




Argument, Multimodality, Digital Tools, Professional Development, Rural


The author reports findings from two iterations of a formative experiment focusing on improving students' conventional and digital, multimodal arguments. The first iteration of this experiment occurred in a rural school district in the United Sates with an eleventh-grade English/language arts teacher, and the second iteration was implemented in the same school district, but in a different high school with both a ninth- and tenth-grade English/language arts teacher. The findings focus upon obstacles the teachers encountered while implementing an intervention that entailed elements of argument; digital, multimodal tools; and the writing process. These obstacles led the author to make six recommendations for the future professional development of rural teachers integrating digital, multimodal tools into conventional writing curriculum.

Author Biography

  • Emily Howell, Iowa State University

    Emily Howell is an assistant professor of literacy and co-director of the online literacy coaching certificate at Iowa State University. Emily has taught English and writing at the secondary and collegiate level and currently teaches pre-service teachers and graduate students in education. Her research interests include multiliteracies, adolescent literacy, writing instruction, and digital tools.


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How to Cite

Howell, E. (2018). Obstacles to digital, multimodal pedagogy in rural high schools. Writing and Pedagogy, 10(1-2), 297-321. https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.33761