Soul Retrieval Following Trauma
A Cultural Comparison
Keywords:PTSD, trauma, dissociation, soul retrieval, therapeutic regression, spirituality
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric condition involving an ongoing re-experiencing of the traumatic events. In attempting to escape the distressing emotions involved in the reliving, many PTSD patients with prolonged traumatic experiences, such as childhood abuse and war experiences, show a clinical syndrome that is characterized by dissociation (Lanius, 2010). Spiritual interventions, such as various types of soul retrieval that have been practiced by various First Peoples worldwide, can be effective in addressing the soul loss that occurs as a result of dissociation. This study applied a soul retrieval regression therapy intervention to two different research groups, university students and Indigenous adults, with statistically significant results.
Afana, A.H., Pedersen, D., Ronsbo, H., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2010). Endurance is to be shown at the first blow. Social representations and reactions to traumatic experiences in the Gaza Strip. Traumatology, 16 (4), 73-84.
Alexander, J. (2019). Ancient Wisdom for Modern Living: From Ayurveda to Zen. New York, NY: Sterling Ethos.
Baldwin, W.J. (2005). Spirit Releasement Therapy: A Technique Manual (2nd ed). Headline Books. Terra Alta, WV.
Bahari (2020). The Islamic psycho-spiritual therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (IPSP): A study of feasibility and effects. Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cyberjaya, Persiaran Bestari, Cyber 11, Cyberjaya, Malaysia. ISSN 0975-2366 DOI: http://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2020.12.04.148.
Bekhet, A. K. and J. A. Zauszniewski. 2012. “Methodological triangulation: An approach to understanding data.” Nurse Researcher (2020): 40–43. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2012.11.20.2.40.c9442
Blevins, C. A., F. W. Weathers, M. T. Davis, T. K. Witte, and J. L. Domino. (2015.) “The post traumatic stress disorder checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation.” Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28, 489–498. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22059
Bormann, J. E., Liu, L., Thorp, S. R. & Lang, A. J. (2011). Spiritual wellbeing mediates PTSD change in Veterans with military-related PTSD. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine. 19 (4). doi:10.1007/812529-011-9186-1
Bormann, J.E. Thorp, S., Wetherell, J. L., Goldsham, S. Fellows, I., Lang, A., et al (2009, February). Efficacy of spiritually based mantra intervention on quality of life in veterans with military-related PTSD. Poster session presented at the Health Services Research & Development National Meeting, Baltimore, MD.
Bovin, M. J., Marx, B. P., Weathers, F. W., Gallagher, M. W., Rodriguez, P., Schnurr, P. P. & Keane, T. M. (2015). Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (PCL-5) in Veterans. Psychological Assessment, 28, 1379-1391. Doi:10.1037/pas0000254
Chalmers, J. A., Quintana, D. S., Abbott, M. J. & Kemp, A. H. (2014). Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced heart rate variability: A meta-analysis. Front Psychology, 5, 80.
Currie. J. M., Holland, J. M. & Drescher, K. D. (2015). Spirituality factors in the prediction of outcomes of PTSD treatment for U.S. Military Veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28, 57-64.
Duran, E., & Firehammer, J. (2016). Injury where blood does not flow. Indigenous Cultures and Mental Health Counseling: Four Directions for Integration with Counselling Psychology. S. L. Stewart, R. Moodley and A. Hyatt (eds.), (pp.108-124). New York, NY: Rutledge.
Duran, E. (2017). Native, Indigenous cultures and healing trauma. [podcast] Retrieved from: https://www.thetraumatherapistproject.com/podcast/native-indigenous-culture-healing-trauma-eduardo-duran-phd/
Dyer, Layer, S., Roberts, C., Wild, K., & Walters, J. (2004). Postabortion grief: Evaluating the possible efficacy of a spiritual group intervention. Research in Social Work Practice, 14, 344-350. DOI: 10.1177/1049731504265829.
Engebretson J, Wardell DW. Energy therapies: focus on spirituality. Explore (NY). (2012) Nov-Dec;8(6):353-9. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2012.08.004. PMID: 23141792.
Engel-Smith, J. (2014). Becoming yourself: The journey from head to heart. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, Inc.
Eisenbruch, M. (2017). Mass fainting in garment factories in Cambodia. Transcultural Psychiatry, 54(2), 155–178.
Foster, D.W., Young, C.M., Bryan, J./L., & Quist, M.C. (2016). Compounding risk: An examination of associations between spirituality/religiosity, drinking motives, and alcohol-related ambivalence among heavy drinking young adults. Addictive Behaviors, 63, 1-11. doi:10. 1016/j.addeh.(2016),06.026
Grunert, B. K., Weis, J. M., Smucker, M. R. & Christianson, H. F. (2007). Imagery re-scripting and reprocessing therapy after failed prolonged exposure for post-traumatic stress disorder following military-related PTSD. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine 19(4), 496-502.
Harner, M.J (1990). The Way of the Shaman. San Francisco: Harper& Row.
Harner, S. D. (1995). Immune and affect response to Shamanic drumming. ETD Collection for Fordham University Paper AA19520609.
Harris, J.I., Erbes, C.R., Engdahl, B. E., Thuras, P., Murray-Swank, N., Grace, D., Ogden, H., Olson, H.A., Winskowski, A.M., Bacon, R., Malec, C., Campion, K., Le, T. (2011). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(0), 1-14.
Hinton, D.E., Reis, R., & de Jong, J. (2020). Ghost encounters among traumatized Cambodian refugees: Severity, relationship to PTSD and phenomenology. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 44, 333-359. http://doi.org/10.1007/s 11013-019-09661-6
Hughes, B., & Handrzo, G (2010). The Handbook of Best Practices for the Provision of Spiritual Care to Persons with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury. Washington, DC: United States Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.
Ingerman. S. & Wasserman, H. (2010). Awakening the spirit world: The shamanic path of direct revelation. Boulder, CO: Sounds True.
Jimenez, S. (2017). Beyond PTSD: Soul Injury. Retrieved from https: asburyseminary.edu/elink/beyond-ptsd-soulinjury
Kalsched, D. (2013). Trauma and the Soul: A Psycho-spiritual Approach to Human Development and its Interruptions. New York: Routledge.
Kharitidi, O. (1997). Entering the Circle: Ancient Secrets of Siberian Wisdom. Harper One.
King, A. (2017). Inaugural Cameo Chair in Indigenous Health and Wellness, University of Saskatchewan.
Koenig, H.G. (2015). Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. International Scholarly Research Notices. Psychiatry, 1-33. Doi:10.5402/2012/278730
Lang, A. J. (2017). Mindfulness in PTSD treatment. Current Opinion in Psychology, 14: 40-43. Retrieved from: www.sciencedirect.com.
Lang, A.J. Malaktaris, A.L., Casmar, P., Baca, S. A., Golshan, S., Harrison, T., & Negi, L. (2019). International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 00, 1-11DOI 10.1002/jts.
Lanius, R. (2004). The nature of traumatic memories: A 4-T fmri functional connectivity analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 36-44.
Lanius, R A; Vermetten, E; Loewenstein, RJ; Brand, B; Schmahl, C; Bremner, JD; Spiegel, D. (2010). Emotion modulation in PTSD: Clinical neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(6), 640.
Levine, P. (2005). Healing trauma: A pioneering program for restoring the wisdom of your body. Boulder, CO. Sounds True.
Mutambara, J. & Sodi, T. (2018). Exploring the role of spirituality in coping with war trauma among war veterans in Zimbabwe. Sage Open (January to March), 1-10. DOI 10.1177/2158244017750433. Journals.sagepub.com/home/sgo.
Opus Peace (2018a). Soul Injury: A History of the Problem. Retrieved from: http://opuspeace.org/about-us.
Opus Peace (2018b). What Does Soul Injury Mean? Retrieved from: http://opuspeace.org/about-us.
Pugh, M. (2004). Spiraling into Wholeness: A Practical Guide for Healing Using Creativity and Body Wisdom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Creation Spirituality, Oakland, CA.
Sammito, S; Thielmann, B; Zimmermann, P. & Bockelmann, I. (2015). Influence of posttraumatic stress disorder on heart rate variability as marker of the autonomic nervous system- A systemic review. Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 83(1), 30-37.
Scaer, R. (2005). The trauma spectrum. WW Norton.
Schore, A. (2008). Paradigm shift: The right brain and the relational unconscious. Psychologist-Psychoanalyst, Summer. Pg. 20
Schuman, D. (2016). Veterans’ experiences using complementary and alternative medicine for posttraumatic stress: A qualitative interpretative meta-synthesis. Social Work in Public Health, 31(2), 83-97.
Simington, J. A. (2004). Ethics for an evolving spirituality. In J. L. Storch, P. Rodney & R. Starzomski (Eds.), Toward a moral horizon: Nursing ethics for leadership and practice (pp. 465-484). Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada.
Simington, J. A. (2018). A soulful approach to dissociation resulting from trauma. Religious Studies and Theology, 37(1), 116–122.
Simington, J. A. (2019). Evaluating trauma education designed within a spiritual framework. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1-16. doi:org/10.1177/0022167819846728
Simington, J., & Wagner, JIJ. (2020). Retrieving a soul part that fractured during trauma. Religious Studies and Theology. 39(1), doi: 10.1558/rsth.41174.
Steinhubl, SR; Wineinger, NE; Patel, S; Boeldt, DL; Mackellar, G; Porter, V; Redmond, JT; Muse, ED; Nicholson, L; Chopra, D. & Topol, EJ. (2015). Cardiovascular and nervous system changes during meditation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9(145), doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00145.
Smothers, Z.P.W., & Koenig, H. G. (2018). Spiritual interventions in veterans with PTSD: A systemic review. Journal of Religion and Health, 57(5), 2033-2048. Doi: 10. 1007/s10943-018-0680-5
Villaldo, A. (2011). Illumination: The Shaman’s Way of Healing. Carlsbad, CA: Hay House.
Wahbeh, H., Shainsky, L., Weaver, A. & Engels-Smith, J. (2017). Shamanic healing for Veterans with PTSD. Explore, 13(3), 207-217.
Weathers, F.W., B. T. Litz, T. M. Keane, P. A. Palmieri, B. P. Marx, and P. P. Schnurr, (2013). The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). http://recnok.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/PCL-5-Scoring.pdf
Winkelman, M. (2003). Complementary therapy for addiction: Drumming out drugs. American Journal of Public Health 93, 647-651. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.4.647
Wortmann, J. H., Jordan, A. H., Weathers, F. W., Resick, P. A., Dondanville, K. A., Hall-Clark, B. Litz, B. T. (2016). Psychometric analysis of the PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5) among treatment-seeking military service members. Psychological Assessment, 28, 1392-1403. doi:10.1037/pas0000260
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.