Translanguaging in online language teaching

A case study of a multilingual English language teacher in New Zealand

Authors

  • Apsara Wimalasiri Victoria University of Wellington
  • Corinne A Seals Victoria University of Wellington

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/jmtp.20849

Keywords:

translanguaging, critical language scholarship, English language teaching and learning, online teaching and learning, Covid-19

Abstract

The Covid-19 pandemic has restricted social interactions to online spaces, shifting usual face-to-face classrooms to online platforms. This article investigates how teachers and adult learners in an English as an additional language classroom experience these changes, solve problems that arise and negotiate their teaching and learning methods in an online space. Specifically, we focus on a case involving a teacher practising in an online Zoom English language classroom during the 2020 Covid-19 lockdown in Aotearoa New Zealand. The data for this article come from a semi-structured narrative interview, four hours of online classroom observations and a stimulated recall session. Data analysis was conducted using the Interactional Sociolinguistics approach to discourse analysis. Findings from this study show how the teacher shifted to an online space, overcoming initial struggles and negotiating her teaching methodologies, including making use of new technological advancements of the online platforms she used. Additionally, the data highlight the teacher’s efforts to maintain pedagogical translanguaging in her online classes as an effective language teaching strategy. However, there are also restrictions in her awareness of benefits of using spontaneous translanguaging in the language classroom, highlighting that her choices do not always align with translanguaging as a form of social justice.

Author Biographies

Apsara Wimalasiri, Victoria University of Wellington

Apsara Wimalasiri is a PhD candidate in the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies at Te Herenga Waka Victoria University of Wellington. She also holds a BA (UOC, Sri Lanka), MA in TESL (OUSL) and MA in Applied Linguistics (by thesis) from VUW. Her research interests include TESOL, multilingualism and translanguaging, teacher identities, learner identities and heritage language teaching and learning.

Corinne A Seals, Victoria University of Wellington

Corinne A. Seals is a Pūkenga Matua (Senior Lecturer) of Applied Linguistics at Te Herenga Waka Victoria University of Wellington. She is also the Pouakorangi (Director) of the Wellington Translanguaging Project and its resource branch Translanguaging Aotearoa, which she established in 2017, and is currently supported by a Marsden Fund Research Grant. Some of her recent (co)publications include Linguistic landscapes beyond the language classroom (Bloomsbury), ‘Translanguaging in conjunction with language revitalisation’ (System, 2020), Choosing a mother tongue: The politics of language and identity in Ukraine (Multilingual Matters), Embracing multilingualism across educational contexts (VU Press) and Heritage language policies around the world (Routledge).

References

Adinolfi, L. and Astruc, L. (2017). An exploratory study of translanguaging practices in an online beginners’ foreign language classroom. Journal of the European Confederation of Language Centres in Higher Education, 7(1), 185–204. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2017-0008

Barkhuizen, G. (2016). Narrative approaches to exploring language, identity and power in language teacher education. RELC Journal, 47(1), 25–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688216631222

Barr, S. and Seals, C. A. (2018). He Reo for our future: Te Reo Maori and teacher identities, attitudes, and micro-policies in mainstream New Zealand schools. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 17(6), 434–447.

Canagarajah, S. (2011). Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 2, 1–28. https://doi.org:10.1515/9783110239331.1

Cenoz, J. (2017). Translanguaging in school contexts: International perspectives. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 16(4), 193–198. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2017.1327816

Cenoz, J. and Gorter, D. (2017). Minority languages and sustainable translanguaging: Threat or opportunity? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(10), 901–912. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2017.1284855

Cenoz, J. and Gorter, D. (2021). Pedagogical translanguaging. Cambridge University Press.

Duff, P. (2014). Case study research on language learning and use. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 34, 233–255. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190514000051

Galante, A. (2020). Translanguaging for vocabulary development: A mixed methods study with internatonal students in a Canadian English for academic purposes program. In Z. Tian, L. Aghai, P. Sayer and J. L. Schissel (Eds.), Envisioning TESOL through a translanguaging lens (293–328). Springer.

García, O. and Li Wei (2014). Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Palgrave Macmillan.

Gass, S. M. and Mackey, A. (2000). Stimulated recall methodology in second language research. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410606006

Gordon, R. R., Reichmuth, H. L., Her, L. and De Costa, P. I. (2021). Thinking beyond ‘languaging’ in translanguaging pedagogies: Exploring ways to combat white fragility in an undergraduate language methodology course. In U. Lanvers, A. S. Thomson and M. East (Eds.), Language learning in Anglophone countries: Challenges, practices, solutions. Palgrave Macmillan.

Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge University Press.

Gumperz, J. J. (1999). On Interactional Sociolinguistic method. In S. Sarangi and C. Roberts (Eds.), Talk, work and institutional order: Discourse in medical, mediation and management settings (453–472). Mouton de Gruyter.

Gumperz, J. J. (2015). Interactional Sociolinguistics: A personal perspective. In D. Tannen, H. E. Hamilton and D. Schiffrin (Eds.), The handbook of discourse analysis (309–323). Wiley-Blackwell.

Heller, M. (2007). Bilingualism as ideology and practice In M. Heller (Ed.) Bilingualism: A social approach. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230596047

Holmes, J. (2006). Gendered talk at work: Constructing gender identity through workplace discourse. Blackwell.

Kubota, R. (2020). Promoting and problematizing multi/plural approaches in language pedagogy. In S. M. C. Lau and S. Van Viegen (Eds.), Plurilingual pedagogies: Critical and creative endeavors for equitable language in education (303–321). Springer.

Li Wei (2018). Linguistic (super)diversity, post-multilingualism and translanguaging moments. Routledge.

Lin, S.-L., Wen, T.-H., Ching, G. S. and Huang, Y. G. (2021). Experiences and challenges of an English as a medium of instruction course in Taiwan during COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(24), 12920. https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412920

Lo Bianco, J. (2010). Language policy and planning. In N. Hornberger and S. L. McKay (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language education (143–176). Multilingual Matters.

Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Prilutskaya, M. (2021). Examining pedagogical translanguaging: A systematic review of the literature. Languages, 6(18). https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6040180

Ryan, J. and Gass, S. (2012). Stimulated recall. In R. Barnard and A. Burns (Eds.), Teacher cognition and practice: International case studies to illuminate methodological issues. Multilingual Matters.

Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Blackwell.

Seals, C. A. (2021a). Classroom translanguaging through the linguistic landscape. In D. Malinowski, H. H. Maxim and S. Dubreil (Eds.), Language teaching in the linguistic landscape (119–141). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55761-4_6

Seals, C. A. (2021b). Interactional sociolinguistics in language and sexuality research: Benefits and challenges. In J. Angouri and J. Baxter (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of language, gender, and sexuality (226–240). Routledge.

Seals, C. A., Newton, J., Ash, M. and Nguyen, B. T. T. (2020). Translanguaging and task based language teaching: Crossovers and challenges. In Z. Tian, L. Aghai, P. Sayer and J. L. Schissel (Eds.), Envisioning TESOL through a translanguaging lens: Global perspectives (275–292). Springer.

Seals, C. A., Pine, R., Ash, M., Olsen-Reeder, V. I. and Wallace, C. (2019). The use of translanguaging to bridge sociocultural knowledge in a puna reo. In C. A. Seals and V. I. Olsen-Reeder (Eds.), Embracing multilingualism across educational contexts (23–39). Victoria University Press.

Tian, Z., Aghai, L., Sayer, P. and Schissel, J. L. (2020). Envisioning TESOL through a translanguaging lens in the era of post-multilingualism. In Z. Tian, L. Aghai, P. Sayer and J. L. Schissel (Eds.), Envisioning TESOL through a translanguaging lens: Global perspectives (1–20). Springer. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47031-9_1

Wimalasiri, A. (2021). Identity performance and negotiation of multilingual Englissh language teachers in New Zealand: A multiple case study. Thesis submitted to the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research-design and methods (3rd ed.). Sage Publications.

Zou, C., Li, P. and Jin, L. (2021) Online college English education in Wuhan against the COVID-19 pandemic: Student and teacher readiness, challenges and implications. PLOS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258137

Published

2022-03-28

How to Cite

Wimalasiri, A., & Seals, C. A. (2022). Translanguaging in online language teaching: A case study of a multilingual English language teacher in New Zealand. Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices, 3(1), 127–145. https://doi.org/10.1558/jmtp.20849

Issue

Section

Articles