Culture of collaboration
An essential component of motivating readers with language disorders
Keywords:literacy impairment, language disorder, motivation, reading, interactional strategy
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report the results from a research project which focused on understanding how motivation to read is manifested and maintained in children with learning impairments. The participants were enrolled in a specialized university literacy program with graduate student clinicians.
Method: An interpretative, qualitative study utilizing components of ethnography and microanalysis was employed to analyze video transcripts of recorded therapy sessions of speech-language pathology student clinicians and children with language disorders. These interactions were coded for the nature of their role in motivating children to read.
Results and conclusions: This study revealed that a culture of collaboration was a hallmark of treatment that facilitated motivation in the participants. Two key characteristics of motivated behavior that emerged as a result of this culture of collaboration are identified and described. Additionally, three specific, collaborative, therapeutic strategies found to sustain motivation to read are described.
Adelman, H. S., and Taylor, L. (1983). Enhancing motivation for overcoming learning and behavior problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 384–392. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221948301600702
Agar, M. (1986). Speaking of ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ambe, E. B. (2007). Inviting reluctant adolescent readers into the literacy club: Some comprehension strategies to tutor individuals or small groups of reluctant readers. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 50, 632–639. https://doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.50.8.2
Boardman, A. G., Vaughn, S., Buckley, P., Reutebuch, C., Roberts, G., and Klinger, J. (2016). Collaborative strategic reading for students with learning disabilities in upper elementary classrooms. Exceptional Children, 82, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402915625067
Brown, T. B. H. (2010). Learning to read: The unofficial scripts of succeeders and strugglers. The Reading Teacher, 64, 261–271. https://doi.org/10.1598/RT.64.4.4
Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bucholtz, M. (2000). The politics of transcription. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 1439–1465.
Cambourne, B. (1988). The whole story. Natural learning and acquisition of literacy in the classroom. Auckland, NZ: Ashton Scholastic.
Clay, M. (1998). By different paths to common outcomes. York: Stenhouse.
Corbin, J. M., and Strauss, A. L. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crowe, L. (2003). Comparison of two reading feedback strategies in improving the oral and written language performance of children with language-learning disabilities. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12, 16–27. https://doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2003/049)
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of the optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.
Damico, J. S., and Damico, S. K. (1997). The establishment of a dominant interpretive framework in language intervention. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 28, 288–296. https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461.2803.288
Damico, J. S., Oelschlaeger, M. and Simmons-Mackie, N. (1999). Qualitative methods in aphasia research: Conversation analysis. Aphasiology, 13, 667–679. https://doi.org/10.1080/026870399401777
Damico, J., and Simmons-Mackie, N. (2002). The base layer and the gaze/gesture layer of transcription. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 16(5), 317–327. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699200210135857
Damico, J. S., Nelson, R. L., and Bryan, L. (2005). Literacy as a sociocultural process for clinical purposes. In M. Ball (Ed.), Clinical sociolinguistics (pp. 242–249). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470754856.ch19
Damico, J. S., and Ball, M. J. (2010). Prolegomenon: Addressing the tyranny of old ideas. Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders, 1, 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1558/jircd.v1i1.1
Damico, J. S., and Nelson, R. (2010). Reading and reading impairments. In J. S. Damico, N. Muller, and M. J. Ball (Eds), The handbook of language and speech disorders (pp. 267–295). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444318975.ch12
Damico, J. S., and Tetnowski, J. A. (2014). Triangulation. In C. J. Forsyth & H. Copes (Eds), Encyclopedia of Social Deviance (Vol. 2, pp. 751–754). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Deci, E., and Ryan, R. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Deci, E., and Chandler, C. (1986). The importance for the future of the LD field. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19(10), 587–594. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221948601901003
Dillon, D., Anderson, L., Angio, J., Kahan, N., Rumin, A., and Sherman, R. (1995). In C. Dudley-Marling and D. Searle (Eds), Who owns learning? Questions of autonomy, choice, and control. (pp. 190–212). Portsmouth: Heinemann.
Dudley-Marling, C., and Searle, D. (1991). When students have time to talk. Creating contexts for learning language. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
Eggen, P., and Kauchak, D. (1997). Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms. Upper Saddle River: Merrill.
Fantuzzo, J., and Periman, S. (2007). The unique impact of out-of-home placement and the mediating effects of child maltreatment and homelessness on early school success. Children and Youth Services Review, 29, 941–960. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.11.003
Gambrell, L. B., Hughes, E. M., Calvert, L., Malloy, J. A., and Igo, B. (2010). Authentic reading, writing, and discussion: An exploratory study of a pen pal project. The Elementary School Journal, 112, 234–258. https://doi.org/10.1086/661523
Gergen, K. J. (1985). The social constructivist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 266–273. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.3.266
Goodman, K. S. (1989). Access to literacy: Basals and other barriers. Theory into Practice, 28, 300–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405848909543421
Guthrie, J. T., and Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In M. Kamil, R. Barr, P. Mosenthal, and P. D. Pearson (Eds), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 403–422). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with Words. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Press.
Holdaway, D. (1979). The foundations of literacy. Sydney, Austalia: Ashton Scholastic.
Houghton, J., Bronicki, G. J. B., and Guess, D. (1987). Opportunities to express preferences and make choices among students with severe disabilities in classroom settings. Journal for the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 10, 79–86. https://doi.org/10.1177/154079698701200104
House, E. R. (1991). Realism in research. Educational Researcher, 20(6), 2–9, 25.
Keene, E. O., and Zimmermann, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought. Teaching comprehension in a Reader’s workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Kohn, A. (1999). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribes. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Marinak, B. A., and Gambrell, L. B. (2016). No more reading for junk: Best practices for motivating readers (not this but that). Portsmouth: Heinemann.
McDermott, R. P. (1993). The acquisition of a child by a learning disability. In C. Chaiklin and J. Lave (Eds), Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context (pp. 269–305). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625510.011
McGeown, S. P., Norgate, R., and Warhurst, A. (2012). Exploring intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation among very good and very poor readers. Educational Research, 54(3), 309–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2012.710089
McGeown, S. P., Osborne, C., Warhurst, A., Norgate, R., and Duncan, L. G. (2016). Understanding children’s reading activities: Reading motivation, skill, and child characteristics as predictors. Journal of Research in Reading, 39(1), 109–125. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12060
McTavish, M. (2007). Constructing the big picture: A working class family supports their daughter’s pathways to literacy. The Reading Teacher, 60, 476–485. https://doi.org/10.1598/RT.60.5.7
McTigue, E. M., Washburn, E. K., and Liew, J. (2009). Academic resilience and reading: Building successful readers. The Reading Teacher, 62, 422–432. https://doi.org/10.1598/RT.62.5.5
Melekoglu, M., and Wilkerson, K. (2013). Motivation to read: How does it change for struggling readers with and without disabilities? International Journal of Instruction, 6, 77–88.
Mills, J. A. (1998). Control: A history of behavioral psychology. New York: New York University Press.
Nelson, R. L. (2004). Investigation of the process of improved literacy construction in individuals with poor reading abilities and an identification of language impairment. Doctoral dissertation.
O’Neil, J. (1992). Wanted: Deep understanding. Constructivism posits new conception of learning. Update 34, 5. Alexandria: ASCD.
Pinnell, G. S. and Fountas, I. C. (2009). When readers struggle: Teaching that works. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
Routman, R. (2018). Literacy essentials: Engagement, excellence and equity for all learners. Portland: Stenhouse Publishers.
Ryan, R. M., and Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Taylor, D. (1993). From the child’s point of view. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
Turner, J. (1995). The influence of classroom contexts on young children’s motivation for literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(3), 410–441. https://doi.org/10.2307/747624
Ulichny, P., and Watson-Gegeo, K. A. (1989). Interactions and authority: The dominant interpretive framework in writing conferences. Discourse Processes, 12, 309–328. https://doi.org/10.1080/01638538909544733
Van Kraayenoord, C. E. (2010). Review. Response to intervention: New ways and wariness. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 363–376. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.45.3.5
Vygotsky, L. S. (1967). Play and its role in the mental development of the child. Soviet Psychology, 5(3), 6–18. https://doi.org/10.2753/rpo1061-040505036
Wigfield, A., and Guthrie, J. (1997). Relations of children’s motivation for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 420–432. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.520
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.