Language Teachers’ Perceptions and Use of Extended Reality


  • Regina Kaplan-Rakowski University of North Texas
  • Kevin Papin University of Quebec, Montreal
  • Peggy Hartwick Carleton University



extended reality (XR), virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), teachers’ perceptions, technology integration


Extended reality (XR) is rapidly gaining attention and popularity; however, scholars confuse what XR technologies are and how they can be applied in language education. This qualitative, exploratory study unveils language teachers’ perceptions of XR, which is an umbrella term for virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR). Understanding teachers’ perceptions regarding XR is a necessary step toward successful integration, adaptation, and diffusion of these technologies. Based on 110 survey respondents and 10 focus group interviewees, we report on how language teachers apply XR and what potential benefits and barriers they face. This study contributes to the mutual understanding of XR in the computer-assisted language learning community, and it provides examples of practical applications of XR to facilitate language learning and teaching.

Author Biographies

  • Regina Kaplan-Rakowski, University of North Texas

    Regina Kaplan-Rakowski is an assistant professor of learning technologies at the University of North Texas. Within the area of computer-assisted language learning, she studies how practicing various language skills can be facilitated using high-immersion virtual reality, mixed reality, immersive stereoscopic 3D pictures, 360-degree pictures, and other immersive technologies.

  • Kevin Papin, University of Quebec, Montreal

    Kevin Papin is an assistant professor in the Faculty of Education at the University of Quebec in Montreal (UQAM). His research focuses on the pedagogical use of different technologies (e.g., virtual reality, speech technologies) for L2 learning, in relation to the psychology and the autonomy of the language learner.

  • Peggy Hartwick, Carleton University

    Peggy Hartwick is an instructor at Carleton University’s School of Linguistics and Language Studies. Her research focuses on the affordances of digital tools and online learning contexts. She is the recipient of the 2015 Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (STLHE)/Brightspace Innovation Award.


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How to Cite

Kaplan-Rakowski, R., Papin, K., & Hartwick, P. (2023). Language Teachers’ Perceptions and Use of Extended Reality. CALICO Journal, 40(1), 1–23.