Researching and Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language <p>This journal is intended for an international audience of scholars, applied linguists, educators and policy makers engaged with Chinese as a foreign language. It offers a forum for presenting work from a range of linguistic sub-fields related to Chinese linguistics, language pedagogy, second-language acquisition, assessment, teacher training and curriculum design. Issues include Chinese-language and English-language articles.</p> en-US <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> (Yang Yanning) (Ailsa Parkin) Sat, 26 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Adopting mixed methods for research topics in teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language <p>Mixed methods research (MMR) is expanding across various disciplines, and some researchers in the field of teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign or second language (CFL/CSL) have tried to adopt this approach. Drawing from Plano Clark and Ivankova (2016) the socio-ecological framework of MMR, this paper synthesizes the application of MMR in CFL/CSL studies and highlights issues informative for future CFL/CSL researchers and MMR methodologists. Specifically, this paper discusses first the patterns of research questions, participants, and settings, and second the definition of MMR, the rationale for using MMR, the design of MMR, the intersection of MMR with other approaches, and the quality of meta-inferences in the included studies. It concludes that although there are a certain number of studies which use MMR to investigate CFL/CSL topics, however, many aspects in the application of MMR are still open to discussion. Future studies in CFL/CSL which use MMR should be aware of the essence of mixing two strands of methods and of the meta-inferences quality.</p> Feng Liang Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the relationship between grammatical metaphor and mode differentiation in Chinese political discourses <p>In Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), the contextual research of Grammatical Metaphor (GM) is mainly examined by considering three register variables, namely, field, tenor and mode. Although there have been some studies on the relationship between GM and mode, the contribution of GM in mode differentiation has not been investigated in depth so far. This study thus aims to explore the relationship between GM and mode differentiation in Chinese political discourses through an analysis of a corpus formed by 15 texts based on Yang's GM model, and these texts construct three text types distinguished in mode, namely, political reports, political speeches and political interviews. After defining the mode scale and GM distribution scale, the study then examines how GM deployment connects with mode differentiation in two steps: (1) the establishment of mapping relationships between the lexical density scale and the ideational GM deployment scale; (2) the interpretation of the mapping relationships from functional perspectives. It is found that the lexical density scale and GM distribution scale of three text types are well mapped onto each other, which indicates that ideational GM distribution strongly correlates with the lexical density. Such mapping relationships suggest that the deployment of GM is related to mode differentiation because the use of GM has distinctive effects on the complexity, organization and ideologies of texts in different modes.</p> Cheng Xi Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of delaying character instruction in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom on affective outcomes <p>This study surveyed 58 sixth grade students in four different Chinese as a second language classrooms about their anxiety, self-efficacy and attitudes towards learning Chinese as a foreign language when taught using three different approaches: Pinyin only instruction (POI), character only instruction (COI) and character instruction with Pinyin located above the character (PCI). All participants completed a fivepoint Likert scale battery of 38 affective items and six open-ended questions. Our findings indicate that students in the POI condition reported significantly lower anxiety levels than participants in the COI condition. Our findings suggest that POI has potential benefits for learners in that it lowers anxiety while providing similar levels of motivation as COI and PCI.</p> Jesse Walker, Frederick Poole Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers as curators <p>An abundance of authentic materials is available online for language learning. To locate appropriate materials is challenging for even the most motivated learners. This requires teachers to curate authentic online content to enhance and supplement learners' learning. Content curation is the process of collecting, organizing and displaying information. This article describes the procedure and strategies one may use in curating authentic content materials for Chinese language learning online. Teachers as curators need to collect the content with the consideration of difficulty level for different learners. In addition, they should put a lot of thought into content categorization based on the learners' language levels, interests, and their language skills they would like to practice so as to make it conveniently accessible to learners. Necessary pedagogical supports should be provided with the collection.</p> Shenglan Zhang Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000