Bridging the gap from intermediate to advanced proficiency with higher-order thinking skills and content knowledge
Keywords:oral proficiency, critical-thinking skills, developing advanced proficiency
Traditional university Chinese programs aim to produce students who can function at what the ACTFL Language Proficiency Guidelines considers the “advanced” level. However, unless students spend significant time studying abroad, most non-heritage speakers have difficulty moving past the “intermediate” level of proficiency. In order for students to function at the advanced level, they must also develop content knowledge on a variety of topics beyond “the self,” about the community and the world. Moreover, students must also develop intellectual maturity and be able to think critically and analytically, to synthesize and connect content learned outside the language class with the course content. Finally, students need to use their language skills to express complex ideas in Chinese. This paper discusses developing Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in students through the integration of specific assignments, in-class activities, and the introduction of course content, in order to help students move from the intermediate to advanced level of proficiency.
Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York: McKay.
Breiner-Sanders, K. E., Lowe, J. P., Miles, J., and Swender, E. (1999). ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview Tester Training Manual. Yonkers, NY: The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.
Breiner-Sanders, K. E., Lowe, J. P., Miles, J., and Swender, E. (2000). ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines – Speaking Revised 1999. Foreign Language Annals , 33 (1), 13–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2000.tb00885.x
Chou, Chih-p’ing, Wang Xuedong, and Joanne Chiang. (1996). An Advanced Reader of Modern Chinese 中國的危機與希望. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
iMandarinpod.com 愛漢語博客. (2007–2013). Retrieved 13 August 2011, from http://www.imandarinpod.com/hoola/
King, F. J., Goodson L., and Rohani, F. (n.d.) Higher Order Thinking Skills: Definition, Teaching Strategies, Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.cala.fsu.edu/files/higher_order_thinking_skills.pdf
Ling, V. (Ed.) (1997a). Talks on Chinese Culture 中國文化叢談. New Haven, CT: Far Eastern Publications.
Ling, V. (Ed.) (1997b). The Independent Reader 從精讀到泛讀. Taipei: SMC Publishing.
Liu Zepeng 刘泽彭, dir. (2008a). Common Knowledge About Chinese Culture 中国文化常识. Beijing: Higher Education Press 高等教育出版社
Liu Zepeng 刘泽彭, dir. (2008b). Common Knowledge About Chinese History中国历史常识. Beijing: Higher Education Press 高等教育出版社.
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15 (2), 4–14. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.