Effects of delaying character instruction in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom on affective outcomes


  • Jesse Walker University of Colorado
  • Frederick Poole Utah State University




CSL, Delayed Character Instruction, K-12


This study surveyed 58 sixth grade students in four different Chinese as a second language classrooms about their anxiety, self-efficacy and attitudes towards learning Chinese as a foreign language when taught using three different approaches: Pinyin only instruction (POI), character only instruction (COI) and character instruction with Pinyin located above the character (PCI). All participants completed a fivepoint Likert scale battery of 38 affective items and six open-ended questions. Our findings indicate that students in the POI condition reported significantly lower anxiety levels than participants in the COI condition. Our findings suggest that POI has potential benefits for learners in that it lowers anxiety while providing similar levels of motivation as COI and PCI.

Author Biographies

Jesse Walker, University of Colorado

Jesse Walker is a Masters Graduate of University of Colorado at Colorado Springs where he majored in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. His research interests include Second language acquisition instruction, teaching Chinese as a second language, developing literacy skills, and motivation in second language learning.

Frederick Poole, Utah State University

Frederick Poole is a doctoral student in the Instructional Technology and Learning Sciences department at Utah State University specializing in second language teaching and learning. His research interests include digital game based language learning, technology-based collaboration, and dual language immersion.


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How to Cite

Walker, J., & Poole, F. (2019). Effects of delaying character instruction in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom on affective outcomes. Researching and Teaching Chinese As a Foreign Language, 2(2), 162–180. https://doi.org/10.1558/rtcfl.37076