Action bids in children with speech impairments
The case of marking
Keywords:marking, conversation analysis, Down syndrome, assessments, action formation, repetition
The paper illustrates a practice, which we have called ‘marking’, observed in play interactions between parents and children with Down syndrome (DS) aged 3–8 years. Markings are minimal turns that rely on prosody, embodied resources and indexicality to foreground events within an ongoing activity and convey a stance toward them. Markings can be both retrospective and prospective (i.e. referring to a just-occurred or an incipient event). As first pair parts, they are open action bids that prompt recipients to display their co-orientation towards the referent. Responses from parents (i.e. second markings) can take the form of repeats or expansions; after prospective marking the recipient can also add support to the incipient activity the child has marked. We discuss marking as the core constituent of a larger family of actions for ‘sharing noteworthiness’, but also as a designedly undetermined action bid with specific conversational uses for children and adults alike.
Bates, E., Benigni, L., Bretherton, I., Camaioni, L. & Volterra, V. (1977). From gesture to the first word: On cognitive and social prerequisites. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (eds), Interaction, Conversation, and the Development of Language (pp. 247–307). New York: Wiley.
Burdelski, M. & Morita, E. (2017) Young children’s initial assessments in Japanese. In A. Bateman & A. Church (Eds.), Children’s Knowledge-in-Interaction: Studies in Conversation Analysis (pp. 231–255) Singapore: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1703-2_13
Clibbens, J. (2001). Signing and lexical development in children with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome Research and Practice, 7(3), 101–105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3104/reviews.119
Csibra, G. (2010). Recognizing communicative intentions in infancy. Mind and Language, 25(2), 141–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2009.01384.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2009.01384.x
Enfield, N. J. & Sidnell, J. (2017). On the concept of action in the study of interaction. Discourse Studies, 19(5), 515–535. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445617730235 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445617730235
Fidler, D. J. (2005). The emerging Down syndrome behavioral phenotype in early childhood: Implications for practice. Infants & Young Children, 18(2), 86–103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00001163-200504000-00003
Gardner, H. (2009). Applying conversation analysis to interactions with atypically developing children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 23(8), 551–554. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699200802491173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02699200802491173
Gardner, H., & Forrester, M. (Eds.). (2009). Analysing interactions in childhood: Insights from conversation analysis. London: Wiley.
Goffman, E. (1979). Footing. Semiotica, 25, 1–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1979.25.1-2.1
Goodwin, C. (2007). Interactive footing. In E. Holt & R. Clift (eds), Reporting Talk: Reported Speech in Interaction (pp. 16–46). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodwin, M., Cekaite, A. & Goodwin, C. (2012). Emotion as stance. In M.-L. Sorjonen & A. Perakyla (eds), Emotion in Interaction (pp. 16–41). Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730735.003.0002
Heritage J. (1984) A change of state token and aspects of its sequential placement. In J. M. Atkinson & J. Heritage (eds), Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis, (pp. 299–345) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511665868.020
Heritage, J. (2011). Territories of knowledge, territories of experience: Empathic moments in interaction. In T. Stivers, L. Mondada & J. Steensig (eds), The Morality of Knowledge in Conversation (pp. 159–183). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511921674.008
Heritage, J. (2019) The design of polar questions: Two preferences and their management. Keynote lecture, IIEMCA conference, Mannheim, Germany, 2–5 July.
Jefferson, G. (1987), On exposed and embedded correction in conversation. In G. Button & J. R. E. Lee (eds), Talk and Social Organisation, (pp. 86–100) Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Jefferson, G. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. In G. H. Lerner (ed.), Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation (pp. 13–31). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.125.02jef
Keel, S. (2015). Young children’s embodied pursuits of a response to their initial assessments. Journal of Pragmatics, 75, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.10.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.10.005
Kendrick, K. H. & Drew, P. (2016). Recruitment: Offers, requests, and the organization of assistance in interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 49(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2016.1126436 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2016.1126436
Laws, G. & Bishop, V. M. (2004). Pragmatic language impairment and social deficits in Williams syndrome: a comparison with Down’s syndrome and specific language impairment. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 39(1), 45–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820310001615797
Leavens, D. A., Sansone, J., Burfield, A., Lightfoot, S., O’Hara, S. & Todd, B. K. (2014). Putting the ‘Joy’ in joint attention: affective-gestural synchrony by parents who point for their babies. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 879. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00879 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00879
Legerstee, M., Bowman, T. G. & Fels, S. (1992). People and objects affect the quality of vocalizations in infants with Down syndrome. Early Development and Parenting, 1, 149–156. https://doi.org/10.1002/edp.2430010304 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/edp.2430010304
Liszkowski, U. (2006). Infant pointing at twelve months: Communicative goals, motives, and social-cognitive abilities. In N. Enfield & Levinson, S. (eds), The Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition, and Interaction (pp. 153–178). Oxford: Berg. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003135517-8
Martin, G. E., Klusek, J., Estigarribia, B. & Roberts, J. E. (2009). Language characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome. Topics in Language Disorders, 29(2), 112–132. https://doi.org/10.1097/TLD.0b013e3181a71fe1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/TLD.0b013e3181a71fe1
Mondada, L., (2007). Transcript variations and the indexicality of transcribing practices. Discourse Studies, 9(6), 809–821. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445607082581 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445607082581
Morita, E. (2005). Negotiation of Contingent Talk: The Japanese Interactional Particles Ne and Sa. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.137
Newton, R. (2015) Neuropsychiatry of Down syndrome. In R. W. Newton, S. Puri & L. Marder (eds), Down Syndrome: Current Perspectives, (pp. 238–269). London: Mac Keith Press.
Ninio, A., Snow, C. E., Pan, B. A. & Rollins, P. R. (1994). Classifying communicative acts in children’s interactions. Journal of Communication Disorders, 27(2), 157–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9924(94)90039-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9924(94)90039-6
Nomikou, I. & Rohlfing, K. J. (2011). Language does something: body action and language in maternal input to three-month-olds. IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 3(2), 113–128. https://doi.org/10.1109/tamd.2011.2140113 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TAMD.2011.2140113
Nye, J., Fluck, M. & Buckley, S. (2001). Counting and cardinal understanding in children with Down syndrome and typically developing children. Down Syndrome Research and Practice, 7(2), 68–78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3104/reports.116
Ogden, R. (2006). Phonetics and social action in agreements and disagreements. Journal of Pragmatics, 38(10), 1752–1775. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2005.04.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2005.04.011
Pursi, A., Lipponen, L. & Sajaniemi, N. K. (2018). Emotional and playful stance taking in joint play between adults and very young children. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 18, 28–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2018.03.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2018.03.002
Rondal, J. A. (1987). Down’s syndrome. In D. Bishop & K. Mogford (eds), Language Development in Exceptional Circumstances (pp. 165-176). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Rossi, G. (2018). Composite social actions: The case of factual declaratives in everyday interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 51(4), 379–397. https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2018.1524562 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2018.1524562
Searle, J. (1969). Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173438
Sigman, M. et al. (1999). Continuity and change in the social competence of children with autism, Down syndrome, and developmental delays. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64(1), 1–139. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-5834.00002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-5834.00012
Singer Harris, N. G., Bellugi, U., Bates, E., Jones, W. & Rossen, M. (1997). Contrasting profiles of language development in children with Williams and Down syndromes. Developmental Neuropsychology, 13(3), 345–370. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565649709540683 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/87565649709540683
Stivers, T. & Rossano, F. (2010). Mobilizing response. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 43(1), 3–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/08351810903471258 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08351810903471258
Strid, E. & Cekaite, A. (2018). Affective stances and announcements in young children’s social interactions: Everyday morality in recruiting a conversational partner. Presented at the 5th International Conference on Conversation Analysis (ICCA), Loughborough, UK, 13 July.
Svennevig, J. (2004). Other-repetition as display of hearing, understanding and emotional stance. Discourse Studies, 6(4), 489–516. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445604046591
Wells, B. & Corrin, J. (2004). Prosodic resources, turn-taking and overlap in children’s talk-in-interaction. In E. Couper-Kuhlen & C. Ford (eds), Sound Patterns in Interaction, (pp. 119–144). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.62.08wel
Wells, G. (1974). Learning to code experience through language. Journal of Child Language, 1(2), 243–269. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900000684
Wright, D. E. & Bray I. (2000). Estimating birth prevalence of Down’s syndrome. Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 5, 2 89–97.
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.