The interrelation between evaluative categories and evaluated items
Keywords:correlation, evaluation, evaluator, evaluated, functional linguistics
On the basis of 1,171 actual IEC (It-Evaluative Construction, i.e., extraposition in traditional grammar) examples from the BNC and other sources, the present paper investigates the interrelationship between the two major semantic elements of the construction, the Evaluator and the Evaluated. It is found that first-order entities never occur in the IEC as the Evaluated; all instances of the Evaluated belong to second or third-order entities. A general correspondence exists between modality and third-order entities and between attitude and second-order entities. That is, all the exponents of modality are directed to third-order entities and an overwhelming majority of attitudinal exponents is oriented to second-order entities, and vice versa. (The 55 exceptions are explainable in terms of relevance of the entity to the text.) Thus, the distribution of the evaluative categories and the evaluated entities and the correlation between them are semantically motivated.
Biber, D. and Finegan, E. (1989) Styles of stance in English: lexical and grammatical marking of evidentiality and affect. Text (special issue) 9 (1): 93?124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/text.1.1922.214.171.124
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. and Finegan, E. (1999) Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Pearson.
Chafe, W. L. (1986) Evidentiality in English conversation and academic writing. In W. L. Chafe and J. Nichols (eds). Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology, 261?272. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Chafe, W. L. and Nichols, J. (eds) (1986) Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Collins, P. (1994) Extraposition in English. Functions of Language 1 (1): 7?24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/fol.1.1.03col
Conrad, S. and Biber, D. (2000) Adverbial marking of stance in speech and writing. In S. Hunston and G. Thompson (eds). Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse, 142?75. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fawcett, R. P. (2003) The many types of ‘Theme’ in English. http://www.wagsoft. com/Systemics/ Archive/ Fawcett-ThemePaper.rtf.
Fawcett, R. P. (forthcoming) The Functional Syntax Handbook: Analyzing English at the Level of Form. London: Continuum.
Francis, G. (1995) Corpus-driven grammar and its relevance to the learning of English in a cross-cultural situation. In A. Pakir (ed.) English in Education: Multicultural Perspectives. Singapore: Unipress.
Gómez-González, M. A. (2001) The Theme-Topic Interface: Evidence from English. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1976) Halliday: System and Function in Language (selected papers edited by G. R. Kress). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1994) An Introduction to Functional Grammar (2nd edn). London: Arnold.
Heil, J. (2003) From an Ontological Point of View. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199259747.001.0001
Herriman, J. (2000a) The functions of extraposition in English texts. Functions of Language 7 (2): 203?230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/fol.7.2.03her
Herriman, J. (2000b) Extraposition in English: A study of the interaction between the matrix predicate and the type of extraposed clauses. English Studies 81 (6): 582?599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/enst.81.6.582.9180
Herriman, J. (2001) Extraposition from a Systemic-Functional perspective. Gothenburg Studies in English. 81: 73?79.
Huddleston, R. D. and Pullum, G. K. (2002) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hunston, S. (1994) Evaluation and organization in a sample of written academic discourse. In M. Coulthard (ed.). Advances in Written Text Analysis, 191?218. London: Routledge.
Hunston, S. (2000) Evaluation and the planes of discourse: Status and value in persuasive discourse. In S, Hunston and G. Thompson (eds) Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse, 142?175. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hunston, S. and Sinclair, J. (2000) A local grammar of evaluation. In S. Hunston and G. Thompson (eds). Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse, 74?101. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ifantidou, E. (2001) Evidentials and Relevance. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Jespersen, O. (1937/1965) Analytic Syntax. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Kaltenböck, G. (1999) It-extraposition and non-extraposition in English discourse. In C. Mair and M. Hundt (eds) Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 157?175. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Kaltenböck, G. (2004) Using non-extraposition in spoken and written texts. In K. Aijmer and A. B. Stenstrom (eds) Discourse Patterns in Spoken and Written Corpora, 219?242. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Leech, G. N. (1971) Meaning and the English Verb. London: Longman.
Lemke, J. L. (1998) Resources for attitudinal meaning: Evaluative orientations in text semantics. Functions of Language 5 (1): 33?56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/fol.5.1.03lem
Lyons, J. (1977) Semantics (Vol. 2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mair, C. (1990) Infinitival Complement Clauses in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Martin, J. R. (1995) Interpersonal meaning, persuasion and public discourse: Packing semiotic punch. Australian Journal of Linguistics 15 (19): 33?67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07268609508599515
Martin, J. R. (1997) Analyzing genre: Functional parameters. In F. Christie and J. R. Martin (eds) Genre and Institutions, 3?39. London: Cassell.
Martin, J. R. (2000) Beyond exchange: Appraisal systems in English. In S. Hunston and G. Thompson (eds). Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse, 142?175.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Martin, J. R. and Rose, D. (2003) Working with Discourse. London: Continuum.
Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (1995) Lexicogrammatical Cartography: English Systems. Tokyo: International Language Science Publishers.
Palmer, F. R. (1979) Modality and the English Modals. London: Longman.
Palmer, F. R. (2001) Mood and Modality (2nd edn). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139167178
Paradis, C. (2005) Ontologies and construals in lexical semantics. Axiomathes 15 (4): 541?573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10516-004-7680-7
Perkins, M. R. (1983) Modal Expressions in English. London: Pinter.
Poutsma, H. (1928) A Grammar of Late Modern English (I). Groningen: Noordhoff.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1972) A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
Schmid, H. J. (2000) English Abstract Nouns as Conceptual Shells: From Corpus to Cognition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110808704
Smith, C. S. (2003) Modes of Discourse: The Local Structure of Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615108
Thompson, G. and Hunston, S. (2000) Evaluation: An introduction. In S. Hunston and G. Thompson (eds) Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse, 1?27. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vendler, Z. (1967/2002) Linguistics in Philosophy (Zhexue zhong de Yuyanxue) (Chen Jiaying Yi)(Translated by Jiayin Chen ‘translated by Chen Jiaying’). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press/Beijing: Huaxia Chubanshe (Beijing: Huaxia Press) (an English-Chinese version).
Wang, Y. (2006) A Functional Study of the Evaluative Enhanced Theme Construction in English. PhD thesis. Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China).
White, P. R. (1998) Telling Media Tales: The News Story as Rhetoric. Unpublished PhD. thesis. University of Sydney.
White, P. R. (1999) An introductory tour through appraisal theory. http://www. grammatics.com/appraisal/AppraisalOutline/UnFramed/AppraisalOutline.htm
White, P. R. (2000) Dialogue and inter-subjectivity: Reinterpreting the semantics of modality and hedging, in M. Coulthard, J. Cotterill and F. Rock (eds) Dialogue Analysis, 67?80. Tubingen: Verlag.
White, P. R. (2001) Appraisal outline. http://www.grammatics.com/appraisal Appraisal Outline/Framed/Appraisal Outline.htm.
White, P. R. (2001) Appraisal outline. http://www.grammatics.com/appraisalAppraisalOutline/Framed/Appraisal Outline.htm.
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.