The ‘transformative’ potential of translanguaging and other heteroglossic educational practices

Authors

  • M. Rafael Salaberry Rice University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/jmtp.16459

Keywords:

Heteroglossia, Translanguaging, Spanish, Heritage Language

Abstract

Over the last few decades, there has been an increased awareness about imprecise, inaccurate and, thus, unfair conceptualisations of language based on monoglossic views of language that delegitimise the linguistic repertoire of multilingual minorities as is the case of heritage speakers of Spanish in the US or speakers of Lingua Franca English worldwide. At the same time, there are theoretical and educational proposals that offer new conceptualisations of multilingualism focused on the concept of heteroglossia, which, in contrast with monoglossic views, focuses our attention on the fluid and full use of all linguistic resources available to language learners/users as they engage in the process of interacting with their interlocutors. In the present paper, I describe an important challenge that compromises the valuable agenda of heteroglossic approaches to develop multilingualism: the effect of listeners’ biases and reverse linguistic stereotyping. That is, educational programmes designed to counteract the negative effect of monoglossic approaches to second language learning in general cannot adopt a segregationist approach (neither in their theoretical design nor in their practical implementation). To place this challenge in context, I describe in detail the specific example of Spanish heritage second language learners at the tertiary level of education in the US setting and I also provide a broad outline of potential improvements in the curricular design of such programmes.

Author Biography

M. Rafael Salaberry, Rice University

M. Rafael Salaberry (PhD, Cornell University 1997) holds an appointment as Mary Gibbs Jones Professor of Humanities at Rice University. His main areas of research are Spanish Linguistics, Second Language Acquisition/Teaching, and Multilingualism/Bilingual Education.

References

Bakhtin, M. (1981) The Dialogic Imagination. Edited by Michael Holquist. Translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: University of Texas.

Beaudrie, S. and Ducar, C. (2005) Beginning-level university heritage programs: Creating a space for all heritage language learners. Heritage Language Journal 3.1: 1–26.

Beaudrie, S. and Fairclough, M. (2012) Introduction: Spanish as a heritage language in the United States. In S. Beaudrie and M. Fairclough (eds), Spanish as a Heritage Language in the United States: The State of the Field 1–17. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Blackledge, A. and Creese, A. (2014) Heteroglossia as practice and pedagogy. In A. Blackledge and Creese (eds) Heteroglossia as Practice and Pedagogy 1–20. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7856-6_1

Blommaert, J., Leppänen, S. and Spotti, M. (2012) Endangeringmultilingualism. In Dangerous Multilingualism 1–21. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137283566_1

Blommaert, J. and Rampton, B. (2011) Language and superdiversity. Diversities 13.2: 1–22.

Bourdieu, P. (1991) Language and Symbolic Power. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.

Burch, A. R. and Kasper, G. (2016) Like Godzilla. In M. Prior and G. Kasper (eds) Emotion in Multilingual Interaction Vol. 266, 57–85. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.266.03bur

Cameron, D. (1995/2012) Verbal Hygiene. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203123898

Canagarajah, S. (2011) Codemeshing in academic writing: Identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal 95.3: 401–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01207.x

Canagarajah, S. (2012) Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations. London: Routledge.

https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203073889

Canagarajah, S. (2016) Crossing borders, addressing diversity. Language Teaching 49.3: 438–54.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444816000069

Canagarajah, S. (2018) Translingual practice as spatial repertoires: Expanding the paradigm beyond structuralist orientations. Applied Linguistics 39.1: 31–54. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx041

Carreira, M. (2000) Validating and promoting Spanish in the United States: Lessons from linguistic science. Bilingual Research Journal 24.4: 423–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2000.10162776

Carreira, M. (2004) Seeking explanatory adequacy: A dual approach to understanding the term heritage language learner. Heritage Language Journal 2: 1–25.

Cenoz, J. and Gorter, D. (2017) Minority languages and sustainable translanguaging: Threat or opportunity? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 38.10: 901–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2017.1284855

Cenoz, J. and Gorter, D. (2019) Multilingualism, translanguaging, and minority languages in SLA. The Modern Language Journal 103(S1): 130–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12529

Cervantes-Soon, C. G. (2014) A critical look at dual language immersion in the new [email protected] diaspora. Bilingual Research Journal 37.1: 64–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2014.893267

Del Valle, J. (2014) The politics of normativity and globalization: Which Spanish in the classroom? The Modern Language Journal 98.1: 358–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2014.12066.x

Fairclough, N. (1992) The appropriacy of ‘appropriateness’. In N. Fairclough (ed.) Critical Language Awareness 33–56. London: Longman.

Fishman, J. (2001) 300-plus years of heritage language education in the United States. In J. Peyton, D. Ranard and S. McGinnis (eds.) Heritage Languages in America: Preserving a National Resource. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems.

Flores, N. and Rosa, J. (2015) Undoing appropriateness: Raciolinguistic ideologies and language diversity in education. Harvard Educational Review 85.2: 149–71. https://doi.org/10.17763/0017-8055.85.2.149

García, O. (2009) Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

García, O. (2019) Reflections on Turnbull’s reframing of foreign language education: Bilingual epistemologies. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 22.5: 628–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1277512

García, O., Flores, N. and Woodley, H. H. (2015) Constructing in-between spaces to ‘do’ bilingualism: S tale of two high schools in one city. In J. Cenoza and D. Gorter (eds) Multilingual Education between Language Learning and Translanguaging 199–224. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

García, O. and Kleyn, T. (eds) (2016) Translanguaging with Multilingual Students: Learning from Classroom Moments. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315695242

García, O. and Leiva, C. (2014) Theorizing and enacting translanguaging for social justice. In A. Blackledge and A. Creese (eds) Heteroglossia as Practice and Pedagogy 199–216. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7856-6_11

García, O. and Li Wei (2014) Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765

García, O. and Lin, A. M. (2017) Translanguaging in bilingual education. In O. García, A. Lin and S. May (eds.) Bilingual and Multilingual Education 117–30. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02258-1

García, O. and Otheguy, R. (2019) Plurilingualism and translanguaging: Commonalities and divergences. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1598932

Grosjean, F. (1982) Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Grosjean, F. (1989) Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain and Language 36.1: 3–15.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X(89)90048-5

Heller, M. (2007) Bilingualism as ideology and practice. In M. Heller (ed.) Bilingualism: A Social Approach 1–22. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230596047_1

Heller, M. (2010) The commodification of language. Annual Review of Anthropology 39: 101–14.

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.012809.104951

Hesson, S., Seltzer, K. and Woodley, H. H. (2014) Translanguaging in Curriculum and Instruction: A CUNY-NYSIEB Guide for Educators. New York: CUNY-NYSIEB.

Jaspers, J. (2018) The transformative limits of translanguaging. Language & Communication 58: 1–10.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2017.12.001

Jaspers, J. (2019) Authority and morality in advocating heteroglossia. Language, Culture and Society 1.1: 83–105. https://doi.org/10.1075/lcs.00005.jas

Jaspers, J. and Madsen, L. M. (2019) The deliberative teacher: Wavering between linguistic uniformity and diversity. In J. Jaspers and L. Madsen (eds) Critical Perspectives on Linguistic Fixity and Fluidity: Languagised Lives 217–40. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429469312-10

Jørgensen, J. N., Karrebæk, M. S., Madsen, L. M. and Møller, J. S. (2015) Polylanguaging in superdiversity. In K. Arnaut, J. Blommaert, B. Ramptona dn M. Spotti (eds) Language and Superdiversity 147–64. London: Routledge.

https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315730240-14

Jørgensen, J. N. and Møller, J. S. (2014) Polylingualism and languaging. In The Routledge Companion to English Studies 97–113. London: Routledge.

Kang, O. and Rubin, D. L. (2009) Reverse linguistic stereotyping: Measuring the effect of listener expectations on speech evaluation. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 28.4: 441–56. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X09341950

Kleyn, T. and García, O. (2019) Translanguaging as an act of transformation: Restructuring teaching and learning for emergent bilingual students. The Handbook of TESOL in K?12 69–82. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119421702.ch6

Kubota, R. (2016) The multi/plural turn, postcolonial theory, and neoliberal multiculturalism: Complicities and implications for applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics 37.4: 474–94. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu045

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995) Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal 32.3: 465–91. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312032003465

Ladson-Billings, G. (2014) Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: aka the remix. Harvard Educational Review 84.1: 74–84. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.84.1.p2rj131485484751

Leeman, J. (2005) Engaging critical pedagogy: Spanish for native speakers. Foreign Language Annals 38.1: 35–45.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2005.tb02451.x

Leeman, J. (2012) Investigating language ideologies in Spanish as a heritage language. In S. Beaudrie and M. Fairclough (eds) Spanish as a Heritage Language in the United States: The State of the Field 43–59. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

Leeman, J. (2015) Heritage language education and identity in the United States. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 35: 100–19. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190514000245

Leeman, J. (2018) Critical language awareness and Spanish as a heritage language: Challenging the linguistic subordination of US Latinxs. In K. Potowski and J. Muñoz-Basols (eds) The Routledge Handbook of Spanish as a Heritage Language 345–58. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315735139-22

Leeman, J. and Martínez, G. (2007) From identity to commodity: Ideologies of Spanish in heritage language textbooks. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies 4.1: 35–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427580701340741

Leung, C. and Valdes, G. (2019) Translanguaging and the transdisciplinary framework for language teaching and learning in a multilingual world. The Modern Language Journal 103.2: 348–70. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12568

Lewis, G., Jones, B. and Baker, C. (2012) Translanguaging: Developing its conceptualisation and contextualisation. Educational Research and Evaluation 18.7: 655–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.718490

Li, W. (2011) Multilinguality, multimodality, and multicompetence: Code?and modeswitching by minority ethnic children in complementary schools. The Modern Language Journal 95.3: 370–84. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01209.x

Linell, P. (1998) Approaching Dialogue: Talk, Interaction and Contexts in Dialogical Perspectives. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.3

Lippi-Green, R. (2011) English with an Accent: Language, Ideology and Discrimination in the United States, 2nd edition. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203348802

Mar-Molinero, C. and Paffey, D. (2011) Linguistic imperialism: Who owns global Spanish? In Diaz-Campos, M. (ed.) Handbook of Hispanic Sociolinguistics 747–64. New York: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444393446.ch35

Martínez, G. (2003) Classroom based dialect awareness in heritage language instruction: A critical applied linguistic approach. Heritage Language Journal, 1.1: 43–57.

McKinney, C. and Norton, B. (2008) Identity in language and literacy education. In B. Spolsky and M. Hult (eds) The Handbook of Educational Linguistics 192–205. Malden, MA: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470694138.ch14

McNamara, T. (2011) Multilingualism in education: A poststructuralist critique. The Modern Language Journal 95.3: 430–41.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01205.x

Møller, J. S. (2019) Recognizing languages, practicing languaging. In J. Jaspers and L. Madsen, (eds) Critical Perspectives on Linguistic Fixity and Fluidity: Languagised Lives 29–52. London and New York: Routledge.

https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429469312-2

O’Rourke, B. (2015) Language revitalisation models in minority language contexts: Tensions between ideologies of authenticity and anonymity. Anthropological Journal of European Cultures 24.1: 63–82. https://doi.org/10.3167/ajec.2015.240105

O’Rourke, B. and Ramallo, F. (2013) Competing ideologies of linguistic authority amongst new speakers in contemporary Galicia. Language in Society 42.3: 287–305. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404513000249

Otheguy, R. (2013) The linguistic competence of second-generation bilinguals: A critique of ‘incomplete acquisition.’ Romance Linguistics 301–20. https://doi.org/10.1075/rllt.9.16oth

Otheguy, R. (2016) Foreword. In O. García and T. Kleyn (eds) Translanguaging with Multilingual Students: Learning from Classroom Moments ix–xiii. New York: Routledge.

Otheguy, R., García, O. and Reid, W. (2015) Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review 6.3: 281–307. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2015-0014

Otsuji, E. and Pennycook, A. (2010) Metrolingualism: Fixity, fluidity and language in flux. International Journal of Multilingualism 7.3: 240–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710903414331

Pennycook, A. (2016) Mobile times, mobile terms: The trans-super-poly-metro movement. Sociolinguistics: Theoretical Debates 201–16. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107449787.010

Pennycook, A. and Otsuji, E. (2019) Mundane metrolingualism. International Journal of Multilingualism 16.2: 175–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2019.1575836

Plough, I., Banerjee, J. and Iwashita, N. (2018) Interactional competence: Genie out of the bottle. Language Testing Special Issue 35.3: 427–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532218772325

Preston, D. (1989) Perceptual Dialectology. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Foris.

Preston, D. (2013) Language with an attitude. In J. K. Chambers and N. Schilling (eds), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change 157–82. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118335598.ch7

Purnell, T., Idsardi, W. and Baugh, J. (1999) Perceptual and phonetic experiments on American English dialect identification. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18.1: 10–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X99018001002

Ricento, T. (2009) Problems with the ‘language-as-resource’ discourse in the promotion of heritage languages in the U.S.A. In M. R. Salaberry (ed.) Language Allegiances and Bilingualism in the US 110–31. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691798-007

Rosa, J. and Burdick, C. (2017) Language ideologies. In O.García, N. Flores and M. Spotti (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Language and Society 103–23. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190212896.013.15

Rosa, J. and Flores, N. (2017) Unsettling race and language: Toward a raciolinguistic perspective. Language in Society 46.5: 621–647. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404517000562

Rubin, D. L. (1992) Nonlanguage factors affecting undergraduates’ judgments of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education 33.4: 511–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00973770

Ruuska, K. (2019) Languagised repertoires: How fictional languages have real effects. In J. Jaspers and M. Madsen (eds) Critical Perspectives on Linguistic Fixity and Fluidity: Languagised Lives 53–75. New York: Routledge.

Salaberry, M. R. (2009) Bilingual education: Assimilation, segregation and integration. In M. R. Salaberry (ed.) Language Allegiances and Bilingualism in the US 172–195. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Sánchez, M. T., García, O. and Solorza, C. (2018) Reframing language allocation policy in dual language bilingual education. Bilingual Research Journal 41.1: 37–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2017.1405098

Schön, D. A. (1983) The Re?ective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.

Solorza, C., Aponte, G., Levernz, T., Becker, T. and Frías, B. (2019) Translanguaging in Dual Language Education: A Blueprint for Planning Units of Study. New York: CUNY-NYSIEB.

Turner, M. and Lin, A. M. (2020) Translanguaging and named languages: Productive tension and desire. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 23.4: 423–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1360243

Valdés, G. (1995) The teaching of minority languages as academic subjects: Pedagogical and theoretical challenges. The Modern Language Journal 79: 299–328. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1995.tb01106.x

Valdés, G. (1997) The teaching of Spanish to bilingual Spanish-speaking students: Outstanding issues and unanswered questions. In M. C. Colombi and F. Alarcón (eds) La enseñanza del español a hispanohablantes: Praxis y teoría 8–44. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Valdés, G., González, S. V., García, D. L. and Márquez, P. (2003) Language ideology: The case of Spanish in departments of foreign languages. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 34.1: 3–26. https://doi.org/10.1525/aeq.2003.34.1.3

Villa, D. (2009) General versus Standard Spanish: Establishing empirical norms for the study of U.S. Spanish. In M. Lacorte and J. Leeman (eds) Español en Estados Unidos y otros contextos de contacto: Sociolinguística, ideología y pedagogía 175–90. Madrid and Frankfurt: Iberoamericana/Vervuert. https://doi.org/10.31819/9783865279033-010

Villa, D. (2004) Heritage language speakers and upper-division language instruction: Findings from a Spanish linguistics program. In H. Byrnes and H. Maxim (eds) Advanced Foreign Language Learning: A Challenge to College Programs 88–98. Boston, MA: Heinle.

Villa, D. (2002) The sanitizing of U.S. Spanish in Academia. Foreign Language Annals 35: 222–30.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2002.tb03156.x

Villa, D. (1996) Choosing a ‘standard’ variety of Spanish for the instruction of native spanish speakers in the U.S. Foreign Language Annals 29: 191–200. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1996.tb02326.x

Williams, C. (1994) Arfarniad o Ddulliau Dysgu ac Addysguyng Nghyd-destun Addysg Uwchradd Ddwyieithog [An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education]. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, University of Wales, Bangor.

Woolard, K. (2008) Language and identity choice in Catalonia: The interplay of contrasting ideologies of linguistic authority. In K. Su?selbeck, U. Mu?hlschlegeland P. Masson (eds) Lengua, nación e identidad: la regulación del plurilinguismo en España y América Latina 303–23. Frankfurt: Vervuert and Madrid: Iberoamericana.

Zheng, Y. and Samuel, A. G. (2017) Does seeing an Asian face make speech sound more accented? Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 79.6: 1841–59. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-017-1329-2

Published

2020-12-01

How to Cite

Salaberry, M. R. (2020). The ‘transformative’ potential of translanguaging and other heteroglossic educational practices. Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices, 1(2), 266–289. https://doi.org/10.1558/jmtp.16459

Issue

Section

Articles