The translation of style
linguistic markedness and textual evaluativeness
Keywords:markedness, evaluativeness, style, text, practioner research, linguistic/cultural/contextual models of translation
The aim of this article is to report on a number of recent developments in the study of translation and to focus on the issue of â€˜markednessâ€™, singled out here as a central element in the process of translation. Linguistic markedness and the twin notion of â€˜textual evaluativenessâ€™ are examined as part of the wider issue of dealing with â€˜styleâ€™ in translation or the need to translate not only â€˜whatâ€™ is said, but also â€˜howâ€™ it is said. The perspective adopted is essentially applied text-linguistic: the linguistic focus is on the â€˜textâ€™ as a unit of both communication and translation, while the scope of application is specifically informed by a practitioner research paradigm. The markedness, evaluativeness and style theme is pursued against a backdrop of how the theory and practice of translation has evolved in the last 50 years or so from an emphasis on formal notions of translation â€˜equivalenceâ€™ within the â€˜linguistics phaseâ€™, to more dynamic notions of equivalence within the â€˜cultural modelâ€™, and ultimately to models of translation which see equivalence in the light of text in context and beyond.
de Beaugrande, R. (1978) Factors in a Theory of Poetic Translation. Assen: Van Gorcum.
Catford, J. C. (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University Press.
Enkvist, N. E. (1991) Discourse type, text type and cross-cultural rhetoric. In S. Tirkkonen-Condit (ed.) Empirical Research in Translation and Intercultural Studies 5–16. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
Fairclough, N. (2003) Analyzing Discourse: textual analysis for social research. London and New York: Routledge.
Fawcett, P. (1997) Translation and Language: linguistic theories explained. Manchester: St Jerome.
Fowler, R. (1986) Linguistic Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fowler, R., Hodge, B., Kress, G. and Trew, T. (1979) Language and Control. London: Routledge.
Francis, G. and Kramer-Dahl, A. (1992) Grammaticalizing the medical case history. In M. Toolan (ed.) Language, Text and Context: essays in stylistics. London and New York: Routledge.
Gentzler, E. (1993) Contemporary Translation Theories. London and New York: Routledge.
Gumperz, J. (1982) Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grice, H. P. (1975) Logic and conversation. In P. Cole and J. L. Morgan (eds) Syntax and Semantics Vol. III: speech acts 41–58. New York: Academic Press.
Gutt, E.-A. (1991) Translation and Relevance: cognition and context. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hatim, B. (1997) Communication Across Cultures: translation theory and contrastive text linguistics. Exeter: Exeter University Press.
Hatim, B. and Mason, I. (1990) Discourse and the Translator. London: Longman
Hatim, B. and Munday, J. (2004) Translation: an advanced resource book. London and New York: Routledge.
House, J. (1977) A Model for Translation Quality Assessment. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
Hu, Qian (1994) On the implausibility of equivalence response (Part V). Meta 39(3): 418–32.
James, C. (1989) Genre analysis and the translator. Target 1(1): 21–41.
Kelly, L. (1979) The True Interpreter: a history of translation and practice in the West. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kertesz, A. (1979) Visual agnosia: the dual deficit of perception and recognition. Cortex 15: 403–19.
Koller, W. (1979) Einführung in die Übersetzungwissenschaft. Heidelberg: Quelle and Meyer.
Levy, J. (1967) Translation as a decision process. In To Honour Roman Jakobson: essays on the occasion of his 70th birthday Vol. 2 1171–82. The Hague: Mouton.
Newmark, P. (1988) Approaches to Translation. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.
Newmark, P. (1993) Paragraphs on Translation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Nida, E. A. (1964) Towards a Science of Translating. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Nida, E. A. (1969) Science of translation. Language 45(3): 483–98.
Nida, E. A. and Taber, C. (1969) The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: Brill.
Ong, W. (1988) Orality and Literacy: the technologizing of the word. New York: Methuen.
Reiss, K. (1977/1989) Text-types, translation types and translation assessment. In A. Chesterman (1989) Readings in Translation Theory. (Translated by A. Chesterman.) Finland: Oy Finn Lectura Ab.
Sacks, O. (1985) The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Hat. London: Picador.
Savory, T. (1957) The Art of Translation. London: Cape. Simpson, P. (1993) Language, Ideology and Point of View. London: Routledge.
Sperber, D. and Wilson, D. (1986) Relevance: communication and cognition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Stalnaker, R. C. (1972) Pragmatics. In D. Davidson and G. Harman (eds) Semantics of Natural Language. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Steiner, G. (1975) After Babel: aspects of language and translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Toolan, M. (ed.) (1992) Language, Text and Context: essays in stylistics. London and New York: Routledge.
Wilt, T. (1994) Repetition: form, function, and translation. Unpublished paper read at a United Bible Societies Triennial Translation Workshop.
How to Cite
Equinox Publishing Ltd.