Gender, power and language standardization of Serbian
Keywords:gender ideology, language ideology, patriarchal cultural model, language standardization, grammatical gender and social gender in Serbian
In the present paper, language standardization of Serbian is described as a form of institutionalized, legitimized discourse dominance based on a patriarchal cultural model. A sociolinguistic survey, which was conducted among highly educated women (more than half of them in decision-making positions regarding gender sensitive language policy and planning), indicates that there still exists a strong social and academic influence of predominantly male language planners in Serbia who use their publicly recognizable roles to claim that masculine morphological forms for nouns denoting social positions of power are neutral containers of semantic information which do not correspond with the natural gender of agents in public discourse. In consequence, they argue that there is no sexism in the standard Serbian language, thus maintaining and supporting a very strong traditional gender ideology which makes women less visible and less influential in public life. key words: gender ideology, language ideology, patriarchal cultural model, language standardization, grammatical gender and social gender in Serbian
Brbori?, branislav. S jezika na jezik. (From language to language) e-book. http:// www.rastko.org.yu/filologija/bbrboric-jezik/index.html (web page accessed on november 13, 2006).
Brbori?, branislav, Vuksanovi?, Jovan and ga?evi?, radojko (2006) Srpski jezik u normativnom ogledalu (Serbian Language in the Normative Mirror). beograd: beogradska knjiga.
Butler, Judith (2000) Nevolje s rodom: feminizam i subverzija identiteta [title of the original: Gender Trouble; translation by mirjana pai?-Jurini?]. zagreb: Ženska infoteka.
Cameron, deborah (1995) Verbal Hygiene. london: routledge.
Cameron, deborah (2003) gender and language ideologies. in Janet holmes and miriam meyerhoff (eds) The Handbook of Language and Gender 447–467. oxford: blackwell.
Eckert, penelope (1989) Jocks and Burnouts: Social Categories and Identity in the High School. new york: teacher’s college press.
Eckert, penelope and mcconnell-ginet, sally (1992) Think practically and look locally: language and gender as community-based practices. Annual Review of Anthropology 21: 461–90. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.21.100192.002333
Fairclough, norman (2001)  Language and Power. second edition. essex: pearson education limited.
Fekete, egon (2002) Jezi?ke doumice (Language Doubts). beograd: apostrof.
Filipovi?, Jelena (2009) gender sensitive language policy and planning. background paper prepared for the undp (united nations development program) and directorate for gender equality (ministry for labor and social policy) in preparation for the public academic debate held in belgrade, serbia, october 9, 2009.
Hall, kira (2003) expectional speakers: contested and problematized gender identities. in miriam meyerhoff and Janet holmes (eds) Handbook of Language and Gender 352–380. oxford: blackwell.
Ivi?, milka (1995) o zelenom konju: novi lingvisti?ki ogledi (About a Green Horse: New Essays on Linguistics), beograd: XX vek.
Jacobs, andrea michele (2004) language reform as language ideology: an examination of israeli Feminist language practice. phd dissertation, university of texas at austin, usa.
Kerewsky halpern, barbara (1987) The complementarity of women’s ritual roles in a patriarchal society. Balkanologische Veroffentlichungen, weisbaden, band 12 (berlin): 123–132.
Papi?, Žarana and sklevicky, lydia (eds) (2003) Antropologija žene (Anthropology of Woman). beograd: XX vek.
Pauwels, anne (2003) linguistic sexism and feminist linguistic activism. in J. holmes and m. meyerhoff (eds) The Handbook of Language and Gender 550–570. oxford: blackwell publishing.
Republi?ki zavod za statistiku srbije (2008) Žene i muškarci u Srbiji. beograd: ministarstvo rada socijalne politike/uprava za rodnu ravnopravnost. (national statistics institute of serbia. 2008. Women and Men in Serbia. belgrade: ministry for labour and social policy/directorate for gender equality.)
Savi?, svenka (1995) Jezik i pol. Još jedan primer (ne)vidljivosti žena u udžbeniku (another example of (in)visibility of women in textbooks). Feministi?ke sveske (Feminist Notebooks) 3-4: 223–226.
Savi?, svenka (1998) Žena sakrivena jezikom medija: kodeks nesesksisti?ke upotrebe jezika (Women hidden by the language of the media: a codex of nonsexist language use). http://www.e-jednakost.org.yu/download/kodeks_ svenka.pdf (web page accessed on april 17, 2007).
Savi?, svenka (2002) seksizam u jeziku – politika omalovažavanja (sexism in language – a policy of depreciation). in m. blagojevi? (ed.) Mapiranje mizoginije u Srbiji: disukrsi i prakse (Mapping the Misogyny in Serbia: Discourses and Practices) 65–86. beograd: asocijacija za žensku inicijativu.
Savi?, svenka, sanak, marijana, mitro, Veronika and Štasni, gordana (eds) (2009) Rod i jezik (Gender and Language). novi sad: Ženske studije i istraživanja i Futura publikacije.
Van dijk, teun a. (1993) principles of critical discourse analysis. Discourse and Society 4(2): 249–283. doi:10.1177/0957926593004002006
Woolard, katherine and schiefflin, bambi (1994) langauge ideology. Annual Review of Anthropology 23: 55–82. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.23.100194.000415