Masculinity and National Language
The Silent Construction of a Dominant Language Ideology
Keywords:national language, masculinity, nationalization, standardization, language ideology
The notion of a unified Japanese national language was an androcentric language ideology created during the period of Japanese nation-state building in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Its association with masculinity, however, was accomplished without being explicitly stated, rendering the national language an unmarked, hegemonic ideology for the entire nation. The implicit masculinization of the national language was constructed in the gendered dispositions between language ideologies. Language ideologies in the period were gendered on three levels, “national language” vs. “feminine speech,” “schoolboy speech” vs. “schoolgirl speech,” and “masculine features” vs. “feminine features,” constructing the strong ties among masculinity, national language, and specific linguistic features. The masculine, unmarked status of the “national language” was negatively created by its asymmetrical relationship with ideologies concerning feminine, marked, and marginalized speech styles or linguistics forms. The asymmetrical disposition of gendered language ideologies formed iconic representations of female and male citizens. Standardization often involves both the construction and marginalization of feminine language varieties, which symbolically invent female citizens as the Inside Other, enabling a highly integrated construction of male citizenship.
Cameron, D. (1997) Performing gender identity: Young men’s talk and the construction of heterosexual masculinity. In S. Johnson and U. H. Meinhof (eds) Language and Masculinity 47–64. Oxford: Blackwell.
Cameron, D. and Kulick, D. (2003) Language and Sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Coulmas, F. (1988) What is a national language good for? In F. Coulmas (ed.) With Forked Tongues: What Are National Languages Good For? 1–24. Singapore: Karoma.
Doi, K. (1977 ) Bunmeiron onna daigaku (Enlightened Women’s Studies). In M. Ishikawa (ed.) Onna Daigaku Shuu (Collection of Women’s Studies) 119–150. Tokyo: Heibon Sha.
Echeverria, B. (2003) Language ideologies and practices in (en)gendering the Basque nation. Language in Society 32: 383–413.
Endo, O. (1997) Onna No Kotoba No Bunka Shi (Cultural History of Women’s Speech). Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo.
Enloe, C. (1989, 1990) Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fukaya, M. (1966, 1998) Ryoosai Kenbo Shugi No Kyooiku (Education of the Good-WifeWise-Mother). Tokyo: Reimei Shobo.
Gal, S. and Irvine, J. (1995) The boundaries of languages and disciplines: How ideologies construct difference. Social Research 62: 967–1001.
Hagaki shuu (Collection of postcards). Yomiuri Newspaper. 26 December 1902.
Hall, K. (2003) Exceptional speakers: Contested and problematized gender identities. In J. Holmes and M. Meyerhoff (eds) The Handbook of Language and Gender 353–380. Oxford: Blackwell.
Halperin, D. M. (1995) Saint=Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Inoue, M. (2002) Gender, language, and modernity: Toward an effective history of Japanese women’s language. American Ethnologist 29(2): 392–422.
Inoue, M. (2006) Vicarious Language: Gender and Linguistic Modernity in Japan. Berkeley, Los Angles, and London: University of California Press.
Ishida, T. (1954) Meiji Seiji Shisooshi Kenkyuu (A Study of the History of Political Thought in the Meiji Period). Tokyo: Mirai Sha.
Ishikawa, M. (1973) Kaisetsu kaidai (Commentary and bibliographical introduction). In M. Ishikawa (ed.) Nihon Kyookasho Taikei: Oorai Hen 15 Joshi Yoo (Collection of Japanese Textbooks: Everyday Knowledge 15, for Women) 9–47. Tokyo: Koodan Sha.
Jogakusei to gengo (Schoolgirl and language). Yomiuri Newspaper. 16 March 1905.
Kaigo, T. (ed.) (1963) Nihon Kyookasho Taikei Kindai Hen 7: Kokugo 4 (A Great Collection of School Textbooks in Japan 7: National Language 4). Tokyo: Koodan Sha.
Kaigo, T. (ed.) (1964a) Nihon Kyookasho Taikei Kindai Hen 5: Kokugo 2 (A Great Collection of School Textbooks in Japan 5: National Language 2). Tokyo: Koodan Sha.
Kaigo, T. (ed.) (1964b) Nihon Kyookasho Taikei Kindai Hen 6: Kokugo 3 (A Great Collection of School Textbooks in Japan 6: National Language 3). Tokyo: Koodan Sha.
Kanai, Y. (1901) Nihon Zokugo Bunten (Japan Colloquial Grammar). Tokyo: Hooei Kan.
Katz, J. N. (1995) The Invention of Heterosexuality. New York: Dutton, Penguin.
Komatsu, H. (1974) Toosei shosei katagi no edogo teki tokushoku (The Edo language characteristics in Toosei shosei katagi). Saitama Daigaku Kiyoo 9: 17–28.
Komatsu, H. (1998) Kimi to boku: Edo Tokyo-go ni okeru tsui shiyoo o chuushin ni (Kimi and boku: Centering on paired-use in Edo and Tokyo language) . Tokyo Daigaku Kokugo Kenkyuushitsu Soosetsu Hyakushuunen Kinen Kokugo Kenkyuu Ronshuu (Collections of Treatises on National Language for the Hundred Year Anniversary of National Language Studies at Tokyo University) 667–685. Tokyo: Kyuuko Shoin.
Koyama, S. (1991) Ryosai Kenbo To Iu Kihan (The Norm of a Good Wife and Wise Mother). Tokyo: Keiso Shobo.
Kroskrity, P. V. (1998) Arizona Tewa Kiva speech as a manifestation of a dominant language ideology. In B. Schieffelin et al. (eds) Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory 103–122. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kroskrity, P.V. (ed.) (2000) Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities. Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of American Research Press.
Kume, Y. (1997) Shoojo shoosetsu: Sai to kihan no gensetsu soochi (Girl novels: Discursive devices of differences and norms). In Y. Komori, K. Koono and O. Takahashi (eds) Media, Hyooshoo, Ideorogii: Meiji 30 Nendai No Bunka Kenkyuu (Media, Representation, and Ideology: Cultural Studies of Meiji 30’s) 195–222. Tokyo: Ozawa Shoten.
Lee, Y. (1996) Kokugo Toiu Shisoo: Kindai Nihon No Gengo Ninshiki. (The Ideology of National Language: Language Awareness in Modern Japan). Tokyo: Iwanami.
Masubuchi, T. (1978) Kokugo Kyooiku Shi Siryo 5: Kyooiku Katei Shi (Historical Documents of National Language Education 5: History of Educational Systems). Tokyo: Tokyo Hoorei Shuppan.
Mitsui, T. (1977) Nihon Fujin Mondai Shiryooshuu 4: Kyooiku (Collections of Materials on Women’s Issues 4: Education). Tokyo: Domesu Shuppan.
Mosse, G. L. (1996) The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity. New York: Oxford University Press.
Muta, K. (1996) Senryaku Toshite No Kazoku: Kindai Nihon No Kokumin Kokka Keisei To Josei (The Family as Strategy: The Formation of Nation-State in Modern Japan and Women). Tokyo: Shinyo Sha.
Nagel, J. (1998) Masculinity and nationalism: Gender and sexuality in the making of nations. Ethnic and Racial Studies 21(2): 242–269.
Nakae, A. (1888) Fujin kairyoo no issaku (Measures to reform ladies). Kokumin No Tomo 25, 6 July 17–19.
Nakamura, M. (2001) Kotoba to Jendaa (Language and Gender). Tokyo: Keiso Shobo.
Nakamura, M. (2003) Discursive construction of the ideology of ‘women’s language’: From Kamakura, Muromachi to Edo periods (1180–1867). Nature-People-Society 34: 21–64.
Nakamura, M. (2004) Discursive construction of the ideology of ‘women’s language’: The impact of war (1914–45). Nature-People-Society 37: 1–39.
Nakamura, M. (2005) Construction of ‘Japanese women’s language’ as a symbol of femininity: After the Second World War (1945–1965). Nature-People-Society 39: 1–28.
Nakamura, M. (2006) Creating indexicality: Schoolgirl speech in Meiji Japan. In D. Cameron and D. Kulick (eds) The Language and Sexuality Reader 270–284. London and New York: Routledge.
Narita, R. (1994) Shoonen sekai to dokusho suru shoonen tachi: 1900 nen zengo toshi kuukan no naka no kyoodoo sei to sai (Shoonen sekai and reading boys: Community and difference in 1900 city space). Shisoo November: 193–221.
Nishino, K. (1973 ) Shinsen onna daigaku (Newly Selected Women’s Studies). In M. Ishikawa (ed.) Nihon Kyookasho Taikei: Oorai Hen 15 Joshi Yoo (Collection of Japanese Textbooks: Everyday Knowledge 15, for Women) 346–365. Tokyo: Koodan Sha.
Okamoto, S. (2004) Ideology in linguistic practice and analysis: Gender and politeness in Japanese revisited. In S. Okamoto and J. S. Shibamoto Smith (eds) Japanese Language, Gender, and Ideology: Cultural Models and Real People 38–56. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Okamoto, S. and J. S. Shibamoto Smith (eds) (2004) Japanese Language, Gender, and Ideology: Cultural Models and Real People. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Okano, H. (1964 ) Hyoojyungo ni tsuite (On standard language). In S. Yoshida and Y. Inoguchi (eds) Meiji Ikoo Kokugo Mondai Ronshuu (Collection of Papers on National Language Issues after Meiji) 509–514. Tokyo: Kazama Shobo.
Ooe, S. (1892) Toosei Shoonen Katagi (Character of Contemporary Boys). Tokyo: Hakubun Kan.
Osa, S. (1998) Kindai Nihon to Kokugo Nashonarizumu (Modern Japan and the Nationalism of National Language). Tokyo: Yoshikawa Koobunkan.
Otsuki, F. (1905) Nihon hoogen no bunpu kuiki (The distribution of Japanese dialects). Fuuzoku Gahoo 318: 12–17.
Otsuki, F. (1909) Jo (Introduction). In S. Usuda (ed.) Nihon Koogohoo Seigi (Lectures on Japanese Spoken Language) 1–4. Tokyo: Shooha Sanshoo Do.
Ozaki, K. (1994 ) Hayari kotoba (Trendy words). In Kooyoo Zenshuu 10 (A complete collection of Koogohoo 10) 4–5. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Reijo saikun no kotoba (Language of daughters and wives). Waseda Bungaku February 1896: 148.
Schieffelin, B., Woolard, K. and Kroskrity, P. (eds) (1998) Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Seki, A. (1973 ) Kaisei onna daigaku (Revised Women’s Studies). In Matsutaro Ishikawa (ed.) Nihon Kyookasho Taikei: Oorai Hen 15 Joshi Yoo (Collection of Japanese Textbooks: Everyday Knowledge 15, for Women) 341–345. Tokyo: Koodan Sha.
Silverstein, M. (1998) The uses and utility of ideology: A commentary. In B. Schieffelin, K. Woolard and P. Kroskrity (eds) Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory 123–145. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Takata, G. (1977 ) Jokun (Woman disciplines). In M. Ishikawa (ed.) Onna Daigaku Shuu (Collection of Women’s Studies) 71–101. Tokyo: Heibon Sha.
Takeuchi, H. (1907) Tokyo fujin no tsuuyoogo (Common speech of Tokyo ladies). Shumi 2(11): 24–26.
Tanaka, A. (1983) Tokyo Go: Sono Seiritsu to Tenkai (Tokyo Language: Its Formation and Transformation). Tokyo: Meiji Shoin.
Teikoku Kyooiku Kai Nai Genbun Itchi Kai. (1964 ) Genbun itchi no jikkoo ni tsuite no seigan (Petition for execution of the unification of speech and writing). In S. Yoshida and Y. Inoguchi (eds) Meiji Ikoo Kokugo Mondai Ronshuu (Collection of Papers on National Language Issues after Meiji) 288–289. Tokyo: Kazama Shobo.
Ueda, K. (1968 ) Kokugo to kokka to (National language and state). In Meiji Bungaku Zenshuu 44 (The Complete Collection of Meiji Literature 44) 108–113. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
Ueda, K. (1968 ) Naichi zakkyo go ni okeru gogaku mondai (Language problems caused by having foreign residents inside Japan). In Meiji Bungaku Zenshuu 44 (The Complete Collection of Meiji Literature 44) 131–137. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
Ueda, K. (1964 ) Hyoojungo ni tsukite (On standard language). In S. Yoshida and Y. Inoguchi (eds) Meiji Ikoo Kokugo Mondai Ronshuu (Collection of Papers on National Language Issues After Meiji) 502–508. Tokyo: Kazama Shobo.
Ueno, C. (1998) Nashonarizumu to Jendaa (Nationalism and Gender). Tokyo: Seido Sha.
Wakakuwa, M. (2001) Koogoo No Shoozoo: Shooken Kootaigoo No Hyooshoo to Josei No Kokuminka (Portrait of an Empress: The Representation of Empress Shooken and the Nationalization of Women). Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
Washi, R. (2004) ‘Japanese female speech’ and language policy in the World War II era. In S. Okamoto and J. S. Shibamoto Smith (eds) Japanese Language, Gender, and Ideology: Cultural Models and Real People 76–91. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yamada, B. (1964 ) Genbun itchi ron gairyaku (An outline of the arguments on the unification of speech and writing). In S. Yoshida and Y. Inoguchi (eds) Meiji Ikoo Kokugo Mondai Ronshuu (Collection of Papers on National Language Issues After Meiji) 234–245. Tokyo: Kazama Shobo.
Yamamoto, M. (1965) Kindai Buntai Hassei No Shiteki Kenkyuu (Historical Study on the Emergence of Modern Styles). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Yasuda, T. (1997) Teikoku Nihon No Gengo Hensei (The Language Organization of the Japanese Empire). Kanagawa: Seori Shobo.
Yoshioka, K. (2001 ) Y. Kitahara and T. Furuta (eds) Bungo Koogo Taishoo Gohoo (Contrastive Grammar of Written and Spoken Languages). Tokyo: Bensei Shuppan.