The more things change, the more they stay the same, or do they? Revisiting classroom interaction approaches and their effects on quantity and characteristics of language production


  • Linda Carol Jones University of Arkansas
  • Cheryl A. Murphy University of Arkansas
  • Amalie Holland University of Arkansas



discourse, chat, mobile, face-to-face


This study investigated the quantity and characteristics of student language production, discourse functions, and morphosyntactic features in three different discourse settings – face-to-face (F2F), lab-setting chatroom interactions (Lab), and any place/ any device chatroom interactions (APAD). Discourse was examined through the replication and extension of Richard Kern’s (1995) study. Similarities in findings between the two studies included a continuation of incomplete, and short sentence lengths among F2F students, an absence of F2F greetings, and a higher rate of assertions, verb tenses, and simple sentences in the Lab setting. Differences included a higher rate of F2F turns in the current study, an absence of greetings in the lab setting, and a greater number of commands among F2F participants. Findings underscored what Kern previously asserted: that F2F and chatroom settings tend to encourage and support slightly different goals associated with language discourse. Kern stated that more sophisticated conversation occurred in the chatroom setting. Current findings concurred but furthered that more conversational interaction took place within the F2F discourse setting due to a greater number of commands, turns, and incomplete sentences. Similarly, F2F students experienced greater input due to the increase of words heard, questions asked, and commands made.

Author Biographies

Linda Carol Jones, University of Arkansas

Dr. Linda Jones is an Associate Professor of Instructional Technology in the J.W. Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Arkansas. She teaches courses on Language Teaching and Technology (Web. 2.0 Technologies/Video Production). Her research interests include listening comprehension in a multimedia environment, spirituality in Higher Education, as well as New France and French Arkansas History.

Cheryl A. Murphy, University of Arkansas

Dr. Cheryl Murphy is an Associate Professor of Educational Technology in the College of Education and Health Professions at the University of Arkansas. She is the Director of Distance Education for the College and serves as Program Coordinator for the Educational Technology program. Her research interests include the design, development, and evaluation of technology-supported instruction; best practices in online learning; faculty development; and distance learning accreditation and policy formation.

Amalie Holland, University of Arkansas

Amalie Holland is the Director of the Center for World Languages, Literatures, and Cultures in the J.W. Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Arkansas. Ms. Holland manages and assists in the technological needs for language learners and faculty, and helps to implement new technologies for use inside and outside the classroom.


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How to Cite

Jones, L. C., Murphy, C. A., & Holland, A. (2015). The more things change, the more they stay the same, or do they? Revisiting classroom interaction approaches and their effects on quantity and characteristics of language production. CALICO Journal, 32(2), 245–272.