Toward Blended Language Learning Frameworks

A Systematic Review


  • Jessica DeMolder Brigham Young University
  • David Wiseman Merit Preparatory Academy; Brigham Young University
  • Charles Graham Brigham Young University
  • Camellia Hill Brigham Young University



blended language learning, online language learning, second language instruction, computer-assisted instruction


Over the past decades, but particularly as a response to the global pandemic, online language technologies have made blended approaches increasingly practical for the language learning classroom. Despite the growing interest in blended learning generally, research has shown an overemphasis on comparative studies (Goertler, 2019), and left the field with a lack of summative research in blended language learning (BLL). For this article, therefore, we reviewed 208 peer-reviewed studies on BLL to identify predominant scholarly trends, including gaps in the literature, and to encourage further investigation in targeted areas. We specifically advocate for scholarship that addresses language proficiency outcomes, connects the domains of language learning theory and blended instruction, and centers on design-based aims. We invite educators within blended education, foreign language acquisition, and other relevant fields to work collaboratively across disciplines, using our review as a springboard to develop a more complete BLL design framework to better use the affordances of technology to advance BLL.

Author Biographies

  • Jessica DeMolder, Brigham Young University

    Jessica DeMolder is a PhD candidate at Brigham Young University, who studies instructional psychology and technology with a focus on technology integration in language learning environments. She has been adjunct faculty teaching language as well as language methodologies for over a decade. She also is the Language Curriculum Manager at the Language Training Center at Brigham Young University.

  • David Wiseman, Merit Preparatory Academy; Brigham Young University

    David Wiseman (PhD, Vanderbilt University) has served in diverse teaching and administrative positions over a span of nearly two decades. Currently, he is a Teaching Specialist at Merit Preparatory Academy, and also teaches online courses in Latin American history, literature, and culture at Brigham Young University. Throughout his career, Dr. Wiseman has also engaged in additional professional activities, including work as an editor, translator, librarian, web designer, graphic designer, video editor, marketing director, and curriculum developer.

  • Charles Graham, Brigham Young University

    Charles R. Graham is a Professor at Brigham Young University, who studies technology-mediated teaching and learning, with a focus on the design and evaluation of blended and online learning environments. He also researches the use of technology to enhance traditional teaching and learning. His current research publications can be found online at

  • Camellia Hill, Brigham Young University

    Camellia Hill is an innovative educator with over a decade of educational involvement. She has been employed as a teacher in the Ukraine, Canada, the Dominican Republic, Brazil, and now the United States of America. Camellia has a combined degree in kinesiology and education from the University of Lethbridge, as well as a master’s degree in Portuguese pedagogy from Brigham Young University. She is presently a graduate student in instructional psychology and technology at Brigham Young University.


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How to Cite

DeMolder, J., Wiseman, D., Graham, C., & Hill, C. (2023). Toward Blended Language Learning Frameworks: A Systematic Review. CALICO Journal, 40(2), 218-237.