Distance Students’ Language Learning Strategies in Asynchronous and Synchronous Environments


  • Lijuan Chen Griffith University
  • Claire Rodway Griffith University




language learning strategies, asynchronous environment, synchronous environment, distance language learning


Although there are many studies on distance students’ language learning strategies (LLS) use, very little is known about what distinguishes LLS use between synchronous and asynchronous environments. This preliminary mixed-methods research helps to fill this gap by investigating distance students’ LLS use in these two environments. The picture of LLS use that emerged from the data collected has clearly demonstrated that the participants’ use of LLS and technologies was environment-dependent. Our findings suggest that, although the participants were able to use a wide repertoire of LLS and technological tools to facilitate their independent and collaborative learning, the efficacy of their efforts could be further improved by practicing LLS consciously and systematically. We therefore recommend environment-dependent LLS training and the integration of such training into curricular design, in order to empower learners to take more responsibility in online language learning.

Author Biographies

  • Lijuan Chen, Griffith University

    Lijuan Chen gained her PhD from the School of Humanities, Languages and Social Science at Griffith University, Australia. Her research interests include technology-enhanced language teaching and learning, in particular, language learning strategy adoption in online and distance learning, Chinese as a foreign language, and foreign language learners’ educational experiences. She has taught Chinese in China, Singapore, and Australia.

  • Claire Rodway, Griffith University

    Claire Rodway is a senior lecturer in the School of Humanities, Languages and Social Science at Griffith University, and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. Her research interests include second language learning experiences, especially transition and writing pedagogy, intercultural communication, and feedback literacy (both student and teacher).


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How to Cite

Chen, L., & Rodway, C. (2023). Distance Students’ Language Learning Strategies in Asynchronous and Synchronous Environments. CALICO Journal, 40(2), 198-217. https://doi.org/10.1558/cj.21639