Empirical CALL evaluation

The Relationship Between Learning Process and Learning Outcome


  • Qing Ma




Empirical CALL Evaluation, Learning Process, Learning Outcome


CALL evaluation is important because it is the most efficient means to prove CALL effectiveness. While both learning process and learning outcome should be investigated in empirical evaluation, the precise relationship between the two needs to be examined closely. Only by doing so can we identify useful CALL design features that facilitate relevant user-computer interaction which can lead to an improved learning outcome. This study examined how certain user actions can affect or predict receptive/productive vocabulary retention in a computer-assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL) program. Results showed that only the user actions which contributed to identifiable levels of vocabulary processing--those at which (a) the initial meaning-form mappings of the vocabulary items are established and (b) the vocabulary items are practiced in different contexts--significantly accounted for vocabulary retention. In addition, user actions accounted for receptive vocabulary retention better than for productive vocabulary retention.


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How to Cite

Ma, Q. (2013). Empirical CALL evaluation: The Relationship Between Learning Process and Learning Outcome. CALICO Journal, 26(1), 108-122. https://doi.org/10.1558/cj.v26i1.108-122