Japanese Neologisms in Chinese

Revisiting Japanese Loanwords in Chinese and Implications for the General Loanword Theory

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/lexi.21513

Keywords:

Chinese loanwords, Japanese loanwords in Chinese, graphic loans, World Loanword Database, meta-study, classification

Abstract

Japanese loanwords in Chinese are currently not accepted as legitimate loanwords in the general loanword framework (Haspelmath and Tadmor, 2009a), mainly because they are considered to be graphic loans (Masini, 1997; Tranter, 2009) and not sound-meaning borrowings. This paper formulates a counterargument, developed mainly from the perspective of the Chinese scholarship: it focuses on how graphemic borrowing impacts the judgment of loanwordness and the types of resolving strategies that have been developed. The origin of word form, word meaning, and the pathways of historical borrowing particularly stand out as non-linguistic factors of loanwordness. Based on a metaanalysis of 25 studies of Japanese loanwords in Chinese, the authors propose a typology of Japanese loanwords in Chinese that bridges the Western and the Chinese frameworks. To put forward a concrete example, we compile a list of 2,920 Japanese loanwords in Chinese, which are discussed by at least three scholars, ordered by degrees of agreement within the Chinese scholarship. We compare this list against the vocabulary list of the World Loanword Database and demonstrate that Wiebusch and Tadmor (2009), in ignoring Japanese loanwords, also omits numerous loanwords in Chinese. We echo Tranter (2009) in arguing that Japanese loanwords in Chinese can be classified as material borrowing, putting graphemic borrowing on the same footing with phonetic borrowing, since graphemic borrowing is not limited to, though preferred by, the Chinese writing system. We demonstrate this by comparing how writing systems impact borrowing.

Author Biographies

Christian Schmidt, National Taiwan University

Christian Schmidt: PhD program in Linguistics at National Taiwan University.

Chien-shou Chen, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

Chien-shou Chen: Institute of Modern History at Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

References

Baxter, H. B. and Sagart, L. (2014). Old Chinese: A new reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cen, Q. X. (2015). Dictionary of Chinese Loanwords [Hanyu wailaiyu cidian]. Beijing: Commercial Press.

Chen, L. W. (2019). East to East: Language concepts between China and Japan in modern times [Dong wang dong lai: Jindai zhong ri zhi jian de yuyan gainian]. Bei- jing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe.

Chen, M. E. (2014). A Study on the Vocabulary of Beijing Mandarin Textbooks in the Meiji Period of Japan [Riben mingzhi shiqi beijing guan hua keben cihui yanjiu]. Xiamen: Xiamen University.

Feng, T. Y. (2004). Tracing Back to the Sources of the New Language [Xinyu tanyuan]. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.

Gao, M. K. and Liu, Z. T. (1958). Research on Loanwords in Modern Chinese [Xiandai hanyu wailai ci yanjiu]. Beijing: Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe.

Ge, B. Y. (2001). Modern Chinese Lexicology [Xiandai hanyu cihuixue]. Jinan: Shandong Renben Chubanshe.

Haspelmath, M. (2008). Loanword typology: Steps toward a systematic cross-linguistic study of lexical borrowability. In T. Stolz, D. Bakker and R. Salas Palomo (Eds.) Aspects of Language Contact (pp. 43–62). Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. https://doi. org/10.1515/9783110206043

Haspelmath, M. (2009). Lexical borrowing: Concepts and issues. In M. Haspelmath and U. Tadmor (Eds.) Loanwords in the World’s Languages: A Comparative Handbook. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Haspelmath, M. and Tadmor, U. (Eds.) (2009a). Loanwords in the World’s Languages: A Comparative Handbook. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Haspelmath, M. and Tadmor, U. (Eds.) (2009b). World Loanword Database. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://wold.clld.org

Haugen, E. (1950). The analysis of linguistic borrowing. Language, 26(2), 210–231. https://doi.org/10.2307/410058

Hong Kong Chinese Language and Literature Association (2001). An Etymological Glossary of Selected Modern Chinese Words. Hong Kong: Hanyu Dacidian Chubanshe.

Huang, H. Q. (2020). Modern Chinese Etymology [Jinxiandai hanyu ciyuan]. Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe.

Huang, C. R. and Liu, H. (2017). Corpus-based automatic extraction and analysis of Mandarin alphabetic words. Journal of Yunnan Teachers University. Philosophy and social science section.

Jin, G. T. and Liu, Q. F. (2010). History of Ideas: Formation of important political terms in modern Chinese [Guannianshi: zhongguo xiandai zhongyao zhengzhi shuyu de xingcheng]. Beijing: Falü Chubanshe.

Kader, G. D. and Perry, M. (2007). Variability for categorical variables. Journal of Statis- tics Education, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/10691898.2007.11889465

Li, X. J. and Yu, Z. H. (2005). Study on Variant Words in Modern Chinese [Xiandai hanyu yixingci yanjiu]. Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Publishing.

Lin, Y. H. (2011). Loanword adaptation in standard Mandarin and phonological theory. In Y. Xiao, L. Tao, and H. L. Soh (Eds.), Current Issues in Chinese Linguistics (p. 426). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Liu, S. X. (1990). Chinese Descriptive Lexicology [Hanyu miaoxie cihuixue]. Beijing: Commercial Press.

Liu, H. (1995). Translingual practice. Standford Univeristy Press.

Liu, Z. T., Mai, Y., Shi, Y. and Gao, M. (1984). Chinese Loanword Dictionary [Hanyu wailaici cidian]. Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe.

Lobscheid, W. (1866–1869). English and Chinese Dictionary: With the Punti and Man- darin Pronunciation. Dail Press Office.

Masini, F. (1997). The Formation of Modern Chinese Lexicon and its Evolution toward a National Language: The period from 1840 to 1898 (trans. Huang Heqing). Shanghai: Hanyu Da Cidian Chubanshe.

Morioka, K. and Yamaguchi, N. (1985). Linguistics of Naming [Meimei no gengogaku]. Tokyo: Tokai University Press.

Myers-Scotton, C. (2002). Contact Linguistics: Bilingual encounters and grammatical outcomes. Oxford University Press on Demand.

Pan, Y. Z. (1989). An Introduction to the History of the Chinese Lexicon [Hanyu cihuishi gaiyao]. Shanghai: Shanghai Guji Chubanshe.

Qiu, M. R. (2001). Translatability and zero-translation [Keyixing ji lingfanyi]. Zhongguo fanyi, 1, 24–27.

Qu, Z. R. (2016). A Study of Japanese Loanwords and Their Sinicization from the End of Qing Dynasty to the Beginning of the Republic of China and the Reform and Opening Up [Qingmo min chu he gaige kaifang conglai de ri yuan jieci ji qi hanhua yanjiu] (Master’s Thesis of Bohai University). Jinzhou: Bohai University Press.

Ross, M. (1991). Refining Guy’s sociolinguistic types of language change. Diachronica, 8(1), 119129. https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.8.1.14ros

Schmidt, C. and Chen, J. S. (2020). Lexicography for loanwords and words with special orthography – loanwords in Modern Standard Chinese. Lexicography, 7, 25–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40607-020-00071-0

Schuessler, A. (2006). ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. University of Hawaii Press.

Sen, T. C. (2016). A study of Japanese loanwords in the Xiandai hanyu cidian [“Xiandai hanyu cidian” zhong de riyu jieci yanjiu] (Master’s Thesis of Nankai University). Tianjin: Nankai University Press.

Shen, G. W. (Ed.) (2006). Liuhe Series Talks: With answers and index [Liuhe congtan: fu jieti, yinsuo]. Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe.

Shen, G. W. (2019a). A Study of Two-character Words in Modern Chinese: Language contact and the modern evolution of Chinese [Hanyu jindai er zi ci yanjiu: yuyan jiechu yu hanyu de jindai yanhua]. Shanghai: Huadong Shifan University Press.

Shen, G. W. (2019b). Finding the Right Word Months of Hesitation Research on Yan Fu’s Translations [Yi ming zhi li, xun yue chichu Yanfu yi ci yanjiu]. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe.

Shen, G. W. (2020). New Language Exchange: The history of Sino-Japanese language negotiations in modern times [Xinyu wanghuan: Zhong ri jindai yuyan jiaoshe shi]. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe.

Shi, Y. W. (2000). Chinese Loanwords [Hanyu wailaici]. Beijing: Commercial Press. Shi, J. J. (2019). A Study of Homographs in Modern Chinese and Japanese [Zhongri xian-dai yuyan tongxing cihui yanjiu]. Beijing University Press.

Shi, Y. W. (2021). Loanwords in the Chinese Language. Routledge.

Song, Z. R. (2014). 100 Years of Chinese New Words Dictionary [100 nian hanyu xinci xinyu dacidian]. Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe.

Sun, C. X. (1956). Chinese Lexicon [Hanyu cihui]. Changchun: Jilin Renmin Chubanshe.

Takeyoshi, S. (1996). List of Japanese made words [Wasei kango ichiran]. Encyclopedia of Chinese Characters [Kanji hyakka dai jiten]. Tokyo: Meiji Shoin.

Tan, R. Q. and Lin, Q. Y. (1983). The History of Chinese Studying in Japan [Zhongguoren liuxue riben shi]. Hong Kong: Sanlian Bookstore.

Tranter, N. (2009). Graphic loans: East Asia and beyond. Word, 60(1), 1–37. https://doi. org/10.1080/00437956.2009.11432591

Wang, L. (2015 [1957]). History of the Chinese Lexicon [Hanyu cihui shi]. Beijing: Zhon- ghua Shuju Chubanshe.

Wang, L. D. (1958). Words borrowed from Japanese in Modern Chinese [Xiandai hanyu zhong cong riyu jie lai de ci hui]. Chinese Language [Zhongguo yuwen], 68, 90–94.

Wang, X. B. (2020). Chinese Studies in the Edo Period in Japan [Riben jiang hu shidai hanyu yanjiu lunkao]. Beijing: Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe.

Weinreich, U. (2010). Languages in Contact. De Gruyter Mouton.

Wiebusch, T. and Tadmor, U. (2009). Loanwords in Mandarin Chinese. In M. Haspel- math and U. Tadmor (Eds.), Loanwords in the World’s Languages: A Comparative Handbook (pp. 575–598). Walter de Gruyter.

Wu, S. X. (1995). Thoughts about research on foreign concept words [Guanyu wailai gainianci yanjiu de sikao]. Word Database Construction Information (Hong Kong) 7: 21–24.

Yu, Y. S. (1935). The evolution of Japanese translation of academic terms [Ri yi xueshu mingci yange]. Wenhua yu jiaoyu xunkan, 69, 13.

Zeng, X. Y. (2017). Research on Chinese Loanwords under the Theory of Complex Dynamics [Fuza dongtai lilun xia de hanyu wailai ci de yanjiu]. Xiamen University Press.

Zhang, Z. G. (1985). Modern Chinese [Xiandai hanyu]. Beijing: Renmin Jiaoyu Chubanshe.

Zhang, X. P. (2017). Staggered Cultural History: A history draft of Sinology studies by early missionaries [Jiaocuo de wenhua shi: Zaoqi chuanjiao shi hanxue yanjiu shi gao]. Beijing: Xueyuan.

Zhang, Y. (2019). A Study of Vocabulary in the End of Qing Dynasty and the Beginning of the Republic of China [Qingmo min chu cihui yanjiu]. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe.

Zhao, M. (2016). Research on the History of Chinese Loan Words in Ming and Qing Dynasties [Ming qing hanyu wailai cishi yanjiu]. Xiamen University Press.

Zhou, S. L. (2016). The Seed of Aesthetic Consciousness: The influence of Japanese made words on Chinese modern literature [Meiyishi de zhongzi: Hezhi han ci dui zhongguo xiandai wenxue de yingxiang]. Hong Kong: Culture Lab Plus.

Zhu, J. (2006). Chinese Linguistics Research in the Past Fifty Years [Wushi nian lai de zhongguo yuyanxue yanjiu]. Taipei: Student Book.

Zhu, J. W. (2020). The Exchange of Modern Sino-Japanese Vocabulary [Jindai zhongri cihui jiaoliu de guiji]. Beijing: Commercial Press.

Dictionaries

He, J. Y., Wang, N., and Dong, K. (2015). Word Origins [Ciyuan]. Hong Kong: Commer- cial Press.

Huang, H. Q. (2020). Modern Chinese Etymology. [Jinxiandai hanyu ciyuan]. Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe.

Ji, X. S. (2014). Shuowen New Corrections [Shuowen xinzheng]. Taipei: Yiwen Chubanshe.

Li, X. Q. (2012). Origin of Characters [Zi Yuan]. Tianjin Guji Chubanshe.

Shi, Y. W. (2019). New Commercial Press Loanword Dictionary [Xinhua wailaici cidian]. Beijing: Commercial Press

Song, Z. R. (2014). 100 Years of Chinese New Words Dictionary [100 nian hanyu xinci xinyu dacidian]. Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe.

Wang, L. J. (2020). Han Stone Inscriptions [Hanbei wenzi tongshi]. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.

Published

2022-06-08

How to Cite

Schmidt, C., & Chen, C.- shou. (2022). Japanese Neologisms in Chinese: Revisiting Japanese Loanwords in Chinese and Implications for the General Loanword Theory. Lexicography: Journal of ASIALEX, 9(1), 79–110. https://doi.org/10.1558/lexi.21513

Issue

Section

Article