Improving the consistency of usage labelling in dictionaries with TEI Lex?0


  • Ana Salgado Universidade NOVA de Lisboa
  • Rute Costa Universidade NOVA de Lisboa
  • Toma Tasovac Belgrade Center for Digital Humanities



Lexicography, Usage labels, Diasystemic information, TEI


This paper analyzes the application of usage labels in three representative lexicographic works, namely the Portuguese, Spanish, and French Academy Dictionaries as a starting point for creating a consistent classifcation of usage labels and their encoding in accordance with TEI Lex-0. The use of labels is not always entirely consistent within individual dictionaries and even less so across diferent lexicographic projects. This makes the tasks of accurately classifying and encoding them quite diffcult. This difculty is compounded by the diferences and partial incompatibilities found in the lexicographic literature on the treatment of diasystemic information. We address the existing literature and the initial classifcation of TEI Lex-0, and argue for the need to introduce some changes to TEI Lex-0, most notably in terms of diatextual labels. Finally, we argue that the existing classifcations based on examples rather than on clear and explicit defnitions of classifcation categories will always lack in precision and lead to mutually incompatible encodings of diferent dictionaries. We propose a set of defnitions for usage label categories that can be adopted by TEI Lex-0 and used in other similar attempts to create interoperable lexical resources. An agreement on usage label categories is a frst and necessary step before proceeding in the direction of harmonizing and standardizing the actual values of usage labels across various dictionaries and across diferent languages.



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How to Cite

Salgado, A., Costa, R., & Tasovac, T. (2019). Improving the consistency of usage labelling in dictionaries with TEI Lex?0. Lexicography, 6(2), 133–156.