"Bottom-up" approach in making verb entries in a monolingual Indonesian learner’s dictionary


  • Dora Amalia The Agency of Language Development and Cultivation, The Ministry of Education and Culture




Definition type, Learner’s dictionary, Productive function, Receptive function


This research is primarily focused on how to make verb entries in a monolingual Indonesian learner’s dictionary and expected to provide the principles of making such entry. A ‘‘bottom-up’’ approach was applied by drawing up a multiple-choice questionnaire for Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing learners to confirm the type of verb entries they prefer. The questionnaire was divided into two parts, for productive and receptive purposes. Each part included four different types of entries: substitutional type with synonym, traditional ‘genus ? specifica’ type, contextual type with valency pattern, and jika (‘when’) definition. The result of the survey indicated that, for receptive function, most of the participants preferred traditional genus ? specifica type and contextual with valency pattern type of definitions, whereas for productive function, most of the participants chose valency pattern type of definitions. The score distribution in productive task confirmed the result that participants who chose contextual with valency pattern definitions largely gained high scores (3 or 4 points). A detailed analysis of sentences produced by participants revealed several common errors that fell into three categories, i.e. improper context, wrong collocation, non-typical usage, that have to be taken into account to set the principles in making verb entries. The finding suggests that the grammatical information should be more specific and using more common words (synonyms or quasi-synonyms) as genus proximum could be of benefit to potential users. It also recommends to conduct broader surveys involving more participants from more various sources for each part of speech.


Amalia, D. 2011. Pedagogical Lexicographic Review of Two Learners’ Dictionaries of Indonesian. In The 2nd Annual International Symposium of Foreign Language Learning. Jakarta: QITEP in Language.

Atkins, B.T.S., and M. Rundell. 2008. The Oxford Guide for Practical Lexicography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing (BIPA). 2010. http://badanbahasa.kemdikbud.go.id/lamanbahasa/info_bipa. Accessed May 15 2013.

BIPA Program. http://www.ui.ac.id/en/academic/page/bipa-programs. Accessed March 15 2014.

Bogaards, P. 1996. Special feature: dictionaries for learners of english. International Journal of Lexicography 9(4): 277–320.

Bogaards, P. 2003. Uses and users of dictionaries. In A practical guide to lexicography, ed. P.V. Sterkenburg, 26–43. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Cinta Bahasa. http://www.cintabahasa.com/ESTIMATED_COURSE_DURATION_FOR_EACH_LEVEL.pdf. Accessed March 15 2014.

Creswell, J.W. 2006. Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Dziemianko, A. 2006. User-friendliness of verb syntax in pedagogical dictionary of English., Lexicographica Series Maior 130 Tu¨bingen: Niemeyer.

Hartmann, R.R.K., and G. James. 2002. Dictionary of Lexicography, 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

Kernerman, A. 2007. Eight suggestions for improving learner’s dictionaries. 21–23. Kernerman Dictionary News, July 2007.

Kwary, D. 2013. Creating and testing the Indonesian High Frequency Word List. Konferensi Linguistik Tahunan Atma Jaya. Jakarta: Unika Atma Jaya.

Lew, R. 2004. Which dictionary for whom? Receptive use of bilingual, monolingual and semi-bilingual dictionaries by Polish learners of English. Poznan: Motivex.

Lew, R. 2011. User studies: Opportunities and limitations. In ASIALEX2011 Proceedings Lexicography: Theoretical and practical perspectives eds. Kaoru Akasu and Satoru Uchida. Kyoto: Asian Association for Lexicography.

Lew, R., and A. Dziemianko. 2006. A new type of folk-inspired definition in English monolingual learner’s dictionary and its usefulness for conveying syntactic information. International Journal of Lexicography 19(3): 225–242.

Madia, I.M. 2001. Kejutan Pembelajar Asing Menggunakan Kata Berafiks dalam Bahasa Indonesia: Kasus Kata Berafiks ber- dan meng-(kan). http://www.ialf.edu/kipbipa/papers/Imademadia.htm Accessed May 1 2013.

Markus, I.M., Hananto, Kurnia, N. 2011. Vocabulary in BIPA course-books and the frequency-based Indonesian word lists. Atma Jaya Conference on Corpus Studies (Concorps). Jakarta: Unika Atma Jaya.

Nielsen, S. 2010. What is this thing called learner’s lexicography? Learner’s Lexicography and Second Language Teaching, 89–108. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Rundell, M. 2006. Learner’s dictionaries. In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 12. 739–743. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Rundell, M. 2008. More than one way to skin a cat: why Full-Sentence definitions have not been universally adopted. In Practical lexicography: a reader, ed. T. Fontenelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sulistiono. 2000. Model Pembelajaran Afiksasi melalui Media CD Interaktif dalam Keterampilan Menulis untuk Pembelajar Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing (BIPA). http://ucubipa.wordpress.com/model-pembelajaran-bipa/. Accessed May 1 2013.

Summers, D. 1988. The role of dictionaries in language learning. In Vocabulary and Language Learning, ed. Carter and McCarthy, 111–125. London: Longman.

Tarp, S. 2009. The foundation of a theory of learner’s dictionary: Lexicographica. In International Annual for Lexicograhy, No. 25.,155–169. Tu¨bingen: Niemeyer.

Uji Kemahiran Berbahasa Indonesia. http://badanbahasa.kemdikbud.go.id/ukbi/v2/index.php/sertifikat Accessed May 15 2013.

Widawati, R. 2002. Kesalahan Afiksasi dalam Pembelajaran BIPA. http://file.upi.edu/ Direktori/FPBS/JUR._PEND._BHS._DAN_SASTRA_INDONESIA/-IKA_WIDAWATI/artikel_KESALAHAN_AFIKSASI_DLM_PEMB_BIPA.pdf Accessed May 1 2013.

Wisma Bahasa. HYPERLINK ‘‘http://www.wisma-bahasa.com/?page_id=1059‘‘ http://www.wismabahasa.com/?page_id=1059. Accessed March 15 2014.



How to Cite

Amalia, D. (2014). "Bottom-up" approach in making verb entries in a monolingual Indonesian learner’s dictionary. Lexicography, 1(1), 73–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40607-014-0001-4