Lexical markup framework

an ISO standard for electronic lexicons and its implications for Asian languages


  • Gil Francopoulo IMMI-CNRS + Tagmatica
  • Chu-Ren Huang The Hong Kong Polytechnic University




Machine-readable dictionaries, Natural language processing, Asian languages, ISO, UML


Lexical markup framework (LMF) is the ISO standard for representing machine-readable dictionaries (MRD) and natural language-processing lexicons. The formal specification has been officially published in 2008 under the reference ISO24613:2008 after a 5-year study and series of meetings gathering 60 lexicon managers and linguists coming from various cultures and languages. The ISO document contains a formal specification under the form of a Unified Modeling Language accompanied with a selection of examples of word description in Asian, European, Semitic and Turkish languages. Afterward, the model has been applied to a couple of African languages. In this current text, after a brief introduction of LMF, we present some difficult challenges which are required to represent a selection of Asian languages, especially in the context of dictionaries in general and MRD in particular.


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How to Cite

Francopoulo, G., & Huang, C.-R. (2014). Lexical markup framework: an ISO standard for electronic lexicons and its implications for Asian languages. Lexicography, 1(1), 37–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40607-014-0006-z