Dark Green Religion

A Decade Later


  • Bron Taylor The University of Florida




Dark Green Religion, Avatar, nature spirituality


I wrote the following remections in the hope they will encourage further research and debate about the phenomena I explored in Dark Green Religion: Nature Spiritualty and the Planetary Future. These remections are adapted from the ‘Vorwort zur deutschen Neuausgabe: Dunkelgrüne Religion—Zehn Jahre danach’, with which I introduced the German edition.


Acosta, Alberto, and Esperanza Martinez (eds.). 2009. Derechos De La Naturaleza—El Futuro Es Ahora (Quito, Ecuador: Abya-Yala).

Associated Press. 2010. ‘James Cameron’s “Avatar” Wins Big at Golden Globes’. Access Hollywood (18 January). Online: https://www.accessonline.com/articles/james-camerons-avatar-wins-big-at-golden-globes-81039.

Atwood, Margaret. 2010. The Year of the Flood: A Novel (London: Virago Press; original edn, London & New York: Bloomsbury, 2009).

Berkes, Fikret. 2017 [1999]. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management (New York: Routledge, 4th edn; original edn, Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis).

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke. 2000. ‘Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management’, Ecological Applications 10.5: 1251-62. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1251:ROTEKA]2.0.CO;2.

Boyd, David R. 2017. The Rights of Nature: A Legal Revolution That Could Save the World (Toronto, ON: ECW Press).

Chapron, Guillaume, Yaffa Epstein, and Jose? Vicente Lo?pez-Bao. 2019. ‘A Rights Revolution for Nature: Introduction of Legal Rights for Nature Could Protect Natural Systems from Destruction’, Science 363.6434: 1392-93. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav5601.

Church of Deep Ecology. 2020. ‘Church of Deep Ecology’. Online: http://www.thechurchofdeepecology.org/.

Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund. 2020. ‘Advancing Legal Rights of Nature: Timeline’. Online: https://celdf.org/advancing-community-rights/rights-of-nature/rights-nature-timeline/.

Cornwall Alliance. 2020. ‘Cornwall Alliance: For the Stewardship of Creation’. Online: at https://cornwallalliance.org/

Cullinan, Cormac. 2003. Wild Law: A Manifesto for Earth Justice (Totnes: Green).

Darwin, Charles. 2003 [1859]. On the Origin of Species and the Voyage of the Beagle (with an Introduction by Richard Dawkins) (New York: Knopf, Everyman’s Library).

Earth Law Center. 2020. ‘Universal Declaration of River Rights’. Online: https://www.earthlawcenter.org/river-rights.

Fleming, Jim. 2010. ‘Sacred Nature’. To the Best of Our Knowledge (Wisconsin Public Radio, Public Radio International, 2 May). Online: https://www.ttbook.org/show/sacred-nature.

Gaianism. 2020. ‘Gaianism: A Philosophical Path through an Ecologically Unstable Time’. Online: http://gaianism.org/.

Goeckeritz, Isaac, Hal Crimmel, and MaríaValeria Berros. 2018. ‘The Rights of Nature: A Global Movement, 2018’. Online: https://youtu.be/kuFNmH7lVTA, or Spanish version, ‘Los derechos de la Naturaleza’. Online: https://youtu.be/RupkZM8dV14.

Gould, Rachelle, Nicole M. Ardoin, and Jennifer Kamakanipakolonahe’okekai Hashimoto. 2013. ‘Transposing the Coversation in Popular Idiom: The Reaction to Avatar in Hawai’i’, in Taylor 2013a: 95-122.

Hall, Mathew. 2011. Plants as Persons: A Philosophical Botany (Albany: State University of New York Press).

Hamner, Everett. 2018. ‘Here’s to Unsuicide: An Interview with Richard Powers’, Los Angeles Review of Books (7 April). Online: https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/heres-to-unsuicide-an-interview-with-richard-powers/.

Haskell, David George. 2012. The Forest Unseen: A Year’s Watch in Nature (New York: Viking).

Haskell, David George. 2017. The Songs of Trees: Stories from Nature’s Great Connectors (New York: Viking).

Hillebrecht, Anna Leah Tabios, and María Valeria Berros (eds.). 2017. Can Nature Have Rights? Legal and Political Insights, RCC Perspectives, No. 6 (Munich, Germany: Rachel Carson Center).

Holtmeier, Matthew. 2013. ‘Post-Pandoran Depression or Na’vi Sympathy: Avatar, Affect, and Audience Reception’, in Taylor 2013a: 83-93.

Istoft, Britt. 2013. ‘Avatar Fandom, Environmentalism, and Nature Religion’, in Taylor 2013a: 61-82.

Kimmerer, Robin Wall. 2013. Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scienti?c Knowledge and the Teachings of Plants (Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed).

Kingsolver, Barbara. 2012. Flight Behavior: A Novel (New York: Harper, 1st edn).

Leimbacher, Jorg. 1988. Die Rechte Der Natur (Basel Frankfurt am Main: Helbing & Lichtenhahn).

Lovelock, James. 1972. ‘Gaia as Seen through the Atmosphere (Letter to the Editors)’, Atmospheric Environment 6: 579-80. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(72)90076-5.

Lovelock, James. 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press).

Lovelock, James, and Lynn Margulis. 1974. ‘Atmospheric Homeostasis by and for the Biosphere: The Gaia Hypothesis’, Tellus 26.1-2: 2-10. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v26i1-2.9731.

Mancuso, Stefano. 2018. The Revolutionary Genius of Plants (New York: Atria Books, Simon & Schuster).

McNeill, John Robert, and Peter Engelke. 2014. The Great Acceleration: An Environmental History of the Anthropocene since 1945 (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press).

Melody Sheep. 2013. Best of Symphony of Science. Band Camp, Digital Album. Online: https://melodysheep.bandcamp.com/album/best-of-symphony-of-science

Melody Sheep. n.d. ‘Symphony of Science’. Online: https://www.symphonyofscience.com/.

Nadkarni, Nalini. 2008. Between Earth and Sky Our Intimate Connections to Trees (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520933125.

Nash, Roderick Frazier. 1989. The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press).

Nelson, Melissa K., and Dan Shilling (eds.). 2018. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).

O’Donnell, Erin L., and Julia Talbot-Jones. 2018. ‘Creating Legal Rights for Rivers: Lessons from Australia, New Zealand, and India’, Ecology and Society 23.1. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09854-230107.

Powers, Richard. 2018. The Overstory: A Novel (New York: Norton).

Provan, Iain 2013. Convenient Myths: The Axial Age, Dark Green Religion, and the World That Never Was (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press).

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. 1976. ‘Cosmology as Ecological Analysis: A View from the Rainforest’, Man 2.3: 307-18. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2800273.

Roy, Ellen, Peter Parkes, and Alan Bicker (eds.). 2000. Indigenous Environmental Knowledge and Its Transformations: Critical Anthropological Perspectives, Studies in Environmental Anthropology (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic).

Rust, Stephen. 2013. ‘Avatar: Ecorealism and the Blockbuster Melodrama’, in Taylor 2013a: 23-36.

Ruffalo, Mark. 2020. ‘Invisible Hand’. 85 minutes. United States. Online: https://www.invisiblehand?lm.com/.

Steffen, Will, W. Broadgate, L. Deutsch, O. Gaffney, and C. Ludwig. 2015. ‘The Trajectory of the Anthropocene: The Great Acceleration’, The Anthropocene Review 2.1: 81-98. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/2053019614564785.

Stepp, John R., Felice S. Wyndham, and Rebecca K. Zarger. 2002. Ethnobiology and Biocultural Diversity: Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Ethnobiology (Athens, GA: International Society of Ethnobiology & University of Georgia Press).

Steward, Julian. 1977. Evolution and Ecology (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press).

Stone, Christopher D. 1974. Should Trees Have Standing? (Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann).

Strainchamps, Anne. 2018. ‘The Secret Language of Trees’, To the Best of Our Knowledge (Wisconsin Public Radio, Public Radio International, 28 April). Online: https://www.ttbook.org/show/secret-language-trees.

Strainchamps, Anne. 2020a. ‘Eye-To-Eye Animal Encounters’, To the Best of Our Knowledge (Wisconsin Public Radio, Public Radio International, 8 February. Online: https://www.ttbook.org/show/eye-eye-animal-encounters.

Strainchamps, Anne. 2020b. ‘Sharing Eye-To-Eye Epiphanies with the Animal World’, To the Best of Our Knowledge (Wisconsin Public Radio, Public Radio International, 13 February). Online: https://www.ttbook.org/interview/sharing-eye-eye-epiphanies-animal-world.

Taylor, Bron. 2011. ‘Debate over Mother Earth’s “Rights” Stirs Fears of Pagan Socialism’. Religion Dispatches (20 April). Online: https://religiondispatches.org/debate-over-mother-earths-rights-stirs-fears-of-pagan-socialism/.

Taylor, Bron. (ed.). 2013a. Avatar and Nature Spirituality (Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press).

Taylor, Bron. 2013b. ‘Salmon Speak—Why Not Earth?’, Center for Humans and Nature. Online: https://www.humansandnature.org/earth-ethic-bron-taylor.

Taylor, Bron. 2016. ‘The Greening of Religion Hypothesis (Part One): From Lynn White, Jr. And Claims That Religions Can Promote Environmentally Destructive Attitudes and Behaviors to Assertions They Are Becoming Environmentally Friendly’, JSRNC 10.3: 268-305. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.v10i3.29010.

Taylor, Bron. 2017. ‘Evolution and Kinship Ethics’, Center for Humans and Nature. Online: https://www.humansandnature.org/evolution-and-kinship-ethics.

Taylor, Bron. 2019a. ‘Animism, Tree-Consciousness, and the Religion of Life: Re?ections on Richard Powers’ the Overstory’, Minding Nature 12.1: 42-47. Online: https://www.humansandnature.org/animism-tree-consciousness-and-the-religion-of-life-re?ections-on-richard-powers-the-overstory.




How to Cite

Taylor, B. (2021). Dark Green Religion: A Decade Later. Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, 14(4), 496–510. https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.34630




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