The Politics of Production, Glass Provenance and Social Context on the Early Islamic Silk Roads

Authors

  • Julian Henderson University of Nottingham

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/jia.20773

Keywords:

glass, ceramics, Silk Roads, politics, provenance, social context

Abstract

Islamic material culture is often either discussed in terms of its typology or its technological characteristics, as defined by scientific analysis, sometimes leading to its provenance. Here these aspects will be discussed in terms of their contrasting social, political and ritual contexts along the Eurasian Silk Roads. The concept of the terrestrial and maritime “Silk Roads” as routes of interaction is considered in terms of its definitions and indeed whether it is a useful term to use. The political context in which production occurred is considered, especially during the Abbasid caliphate, when the political centre shifted from Damascus to Baghdad. This shift in the centre of power is discussed in terms of the way it affected the growth and mass production of ceramics and glass during the golden age of Islam. The use of scientific analysis to investigate glass feeds into this discussion by providing evidence for increasingly more precise provenances and for trade, recycling and for production of different decorative vessel types in specific cosmopolitan hubs and therefore specialization. Moreover, evidence for a decentralized production model for glass and ceramics is discussed. Although the emphasis here is on glass in western Asia, the paper considers Islamic ceramics and glass in eastern Asia, especially during the Tang Dynasty. The social provenance of “exotic” material culture is tied to trade, exchange and gift giving and, in turn, to the acculturation of foreign populations in China, including Arabs and Sogdians. All these activities and factors, and the use of scientific analysis feed into the social, ritual, and economic values of material culture that occurs along the Silk Roads.

Author Biography

Julian Henderson, University of Nottingham

Julian Henderson is Professor of archaeological science at the University of Nottingham and is visiting Professor at Northwest University, Xi’an. He was Li Dak Sum Chair Professor in Silk Road Studies at University of Nottingham, Ningbo and held a visiting Professorship in the University of Melbourne. He directed the Raqqa, Syria ancient industry project funded primarily by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the British Academy, and in addition by the Max Von Berchem Foundation and the Barakat Fund, Oxford University.

References

Adlington, L. W., M. Ritter and N. Schibille 2020 “Production and provenance of architectural glass from the Umayyad period.” PlosOne https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239732 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239732

Al-Hassan, A. Y. 2009 “An eighth century Arabic treatise on the colouring of glass: Kitab Al-Durra Al-Maknuna (the Book of the Hidden Pearl) of Jabir Ibn Ayyan (c. 721–c. 815).” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 19(1): 121–156. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0957423909000605 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0957423909000605

Aldsworth, F., G. Haggerty, S. Jennings and D. Whitehouse. 2002 “Medieval glassmaking at Tyre, Lebanon.” Journal of Glass Studies 44: 49–66.

Allan, J. 1973 “Abu'l-Qasim’s treatise on ceramics.” Iran 11: 111–120. https://doi.org/10.2307/4300488 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/4300488

An, J. 1991 “Dated Islamic glass in China.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 5: 123–138.

“Glass vessels of the Tang Dynasty and five dynasties found in Guangzhou.” In Ancient Glass Research Along the Silk Road, edited by. F. X. Gan, R. H. Brill and T. Shouyun, 387–395. Singapore: World Scientific. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812833570_0020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812833570_0020

Ashtor, E. 1976 A Social and Economic History of the Near East in the Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press.

“Levantine alkali ashes and European industries.” In Technology, Industry and Trade: the Levant versus Europe, 1250–1500, edited by B. Z. Kedar, 475–522. London: Variorum.

Bakirer, O. and S. Redford. 2017 “The Kubadabad Plate: Islamic gilded and enamelled glass in context.” Journal of Glass Studies 59: 171–191.

Banaji, J. 2010 “Early Late antique legacies and Muslim economic expansion.” In Money, Power and Early Islamic Syria, edited by J. Haldon, 147–164. Farnham: Ashgate.

Barkoudah, Y. and J. Henderson. 2006 “Plant ashes from Syria and the manufacture of ancient glass: Ethnographic and scientific aspects.” Journal of Glass Studies 48: 297–321.

Bass, G. F., B. Lledo, S. Matthews and R. H. Brill. 2009 Serçe Limani: Glass of an Eleventh-Century Shipwreck, Vol. 2. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

Baxter M. J., H.E.M. Cool and C. M. Jackson. 2005 “Further studies in the compositional variability of colourless Romano-British vessel glass.” Archaeometry 47: 47–68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2005.00187.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2005.00187.x

Becker, A., S. Beuster, G. Helmecke, N. Idriss, J. Kröger, M. Kühn, K. Müller and J. Kröger, eds. 2010 Vorsicht Glas! Zerbrechliche Kunst 700–2010. München: Ed. Minerva.

Be‘eri-Shlevin, Y., D. Avigad, A. Gerdes and O. Zlatkin. 2014 “Detrital zircon U–Pb–Hf systematics of Israeli coastal sands: New perspectives on the provenance of Nile sediments.” Journal of the Geological Society 171: 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2012-151 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2012-151

Blair, A. G. 2016 “Early Islamic glass in the western Indian Ocean: A typological and functional analysis of the archaeological assemblages from Khadima and Mughaira (Kuwait) and Unguja Ukuu (Zanzibar).” Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Durham.

Brill, R. H. 2001 “Some thoughts on the chemistry and technology of Islamic Glass.” In Glass of the Sultans, edited by S. Carboni and D. Whitehouse, 21-45. Newhaven, CT: Yale University Press.

“Chemical analyses of some Sasanian glasses from Iraq.” In Sasanian and Post-Sasanian glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, edited by D. Whitehouse, 65–88. New York: The Corning Museum of Glass.

Callmer, J. 1995 “The influx of oriental beads into Europe during the 8th century AD.” In Glass Beads: Cultural History, Technology, Experiment and Analogy, edited by M. Rasmussen, U. Lund Hansen and U. Näsman, 49–54. Lejre: Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre.

Carboni, S. 2001 Glass from Islamic lands, the al-Sabah collection. London: Thames and Hudson.

Mamluk Enameled and Gilded Glass in the Museum of Islamic Art, Qatar. London: Islamic Art Society.

Carboni, S., L. Giancarlo and D. Whitehouse. 2003 “Glassmaking in medieval Tyre: The written evidence.” Journal of Glass Studies 45: 139–149.

Carboni, S. and D. Whitehouse. 2001 Glass of the Sultans. Newhaven, CT: Yale University Press.

Chebab, M. 1979 “Tyre a l’époque des Croisades.” Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth, Vol. 31. Beirut: Musée de Beyrouth.

Chen, M. 2007 “The transmission of foreign medicine via the silk roads in medieval China: A case study of Haiyao Bencao.” Asian Medicine 3(2): 241–264. https://doi.org/10.1163/157342008X307866 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/157342008X307866

Costin, C. L. 1991 “Craft specialisation: Issues in defining, documenting and explaining the organisation of production.” Archaeological Method and Theory 3: 1–56.

Cutler, A. 2008 “Significant gifts: Patterns of exchange in Late Antique, Byzantine, and Early Islamic diplomacy.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 38: 79–101. https://doi.org/10.1215/10829636-2007-020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/10829636-2007-020

De Barros Damgaard, P., N. Marchi, S. Rasmussen, M. Peyrot., G. Renaud, T. Korneliussen, J. V. Moreno-Mayer, M. W. Pedersen, A. Goldberg, E. Usmanova, N. Baimukhanov and V. Loman. 2018 “137 Ancient Human Genomes from across the Eurasian steppes.” Nature 557: 369–374. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0094-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0094-2

Decker, M. 2009 “Plants and progress: Rethinking the Islamic agricultural revolution.” Journal of World History 20: 187–206. https://doi.org/10.1353/jwh.0.0058 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/jwh.0.0058

Degryse P., I. Freestone, J. Schneider and S. Jennings. 2010 “Technology and provenance study of Levantine plant ash glass using Sr-Nd isotope analysis.” In Glass in Byzantium – Production, Usage, Analyses, edited by J. Drauke and D. Keller, 83–91. Mainz: Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums.

Degryse P., ed. 2015 Glass Making in the Greco-Roman World: Results of the ARCHGLASS Project. Leuven: Leuven University Press. https://doi.org/10.11116/9789461661579 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11116/9789461661579

Duckworth, C. N. 2017 “Glass production in medieval Spain: A long-term perspective on knowledge transfer.” Annales du 20e Congrès de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre (Fribourg/Romon, 2015) 20: 385-390.

“Seeking the invisible.” In Recycling and Re-use in the Roman World, edited by C. N. Duckworth and A. Wilson, 301–356. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198860846.003.0010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198860846.003.0010

Ettinghausen, R. 1942 “An Early Islamic glass-making centre.” Record of the Museum of Islamic Art, Princeton University 1(1): 4–7. https://doi.org/10.2307/3774136 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3774136

Islamic Art and Archaeology: Collected Papers. Berlin: Gebrüder Mann Verlag.

Ettinghausen, R., O. Grabar and M. Jenkins-Madina. 1987 Islamic art and architecture 650–1250. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Fiorentino, S., B. Venezia, N. Schibille and M. Vandini 2019 “Streams across the Silk Roads? The case of Islamic glass from Ghazni.” Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 153–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2019.04.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2019.04.002

Fontaine, S. D. and D. Foy. 2007 “Le commerce maritime du verre brut et manufacturé en Méditerranée occidentale dans l’Antiquité et la cargaison de l’épave des Embiez.” Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 39: 235–268. https://doi.org/10.3406/ran.2007.1182 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ran.2007.1182

Foy, D. 2015 “Verres islamiques de la citadelle de Damas (IXe-XIIIe s.): un aperçu.” Annales du 19e Congrès de l’Association internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre (Piran 2012), edited by I. Lazar, 429–437. Thessalonika: Koper.

Foy, D. and M.-D. Nenna. 2001 Tout feu tout sable: mille ans de verre antique le Midi de la France. Aix-en-Povence; Edisud; Marseille: Musees de Marseille.

Freestone, I. C. 2002 “Composition and affinities of glass from the furnaces on the island site, Tyre.” Journal of Glass Studies 44: 67–77. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4754.t01-1-00058 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4754.t01-1-00058

“Glass production in Late Antiquity and the Early Islamic period: A geochemical perspective.” In Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage, edited by M. Maggetti and B. Messiga, 201–216. London: The Geological society. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.257.01.16 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.257.01.16

Freestone, I. C. and M. Bimson. 1995 “Early Venetian Enamelling on Glass: Technology and Origins.” In Materials Issues in art and Archaeology IV, edited by P. Vandiver, J. R. Druzik, J. L. Galvan Madrid, I. C. Freestone and G.S. Wheeler, 352–415. Columbus, OH: The Materials Research Society. https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-352-415 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-352-415

Freestone, I. C., Y. Gorin-Rosen and M. J. Hughes. 2000 “Primary glass from Israel and the production of glass in late antiquity and the early Islamic period.” In La Route du verre: Ateliers primaires et secondaires du second millénaire av. J.-C. au Moyen Age, edited by M.-D. Nenna, 65–84. Lyon: Maison de l’Orient Méditerraneéan-Jean Pouilloux.

Freestone I. C., K. A. Leslie, M. Thirlwell and Y. Gorin-Rosen. 2003 “Strontium isotopes in the investigation of early glass production: Byzantine and early Islamic glass from the Near East.” Archaeometry 45: 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4754.00094 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4754.00094

Freestone, I. C., R. E. Jackson-Tal and O. Tal. 2008 “Raw glass and the production of glass vessels at Late Byzantine Apollonia-Arsuf, Israel.” Journal of Glass Studies 50: 67–80.

Freestone, I. C. and C. P. Stapleton. 1998 “Composition and technology of Islamic enameled glass of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.” In Gilded and Enameled Glass from the Middle East, edited by R. Ward, 122–128. London: The British Museum Press.

Gao, J. 2008 “The underground chamber of the Famensi Pagoda: Its date, background, and historical significance.” Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie, Studies in Chinese Art History 17: 193–216. https://doi.org/10.3406/asie.2008.1276 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/asie.2008.1276

George, A. 2015 “Direct sea trade between Islamic Iraq and Tang China: The exchange of goods to the transmission of ideas.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 25: 1–46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1356186315000231 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1356186315000231

Gorin-Rosen Y. 2000 “The ancient glass industry in Israel: Summary of the finds and new discoveries.” In La Route du verre: Ateliers primaires et secondaires du second millénaire av. J.-C. au Moyen Age, edited by M.-D. Nenna, 49–64. Lyon: Maison de l’Orient Méditerraneéan-Jean Pouilloux.

“The Islamic glass vessels.” In Ramla: Final Report on the Excavations North of the White Mosque, edited by O. Gutfeld, 213–264. Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Gratuze, B. and J.-N. Barrandon. 1990 “Islamic glass weights and stamps: Analysis using nuclear techniques.” Archaeometry 32(2): 155–162. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.1990.tb00462.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.1990.tb00462.x

Gutaker, R. M., S. C. Groen, E. S. Bellis, J. Y. Choi, I. S. Pires, R. K. Bocinsky, E. R. Slayton, O. Wilkins, C. C. Castillo, M.M. Oliveira, D. Q. Fuller, J. A. d’Alpoim Guedes, J. R. Lasky and J. Guy. 2010 “Rare and strange goods, international trade in ninth-century Asia.” In Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds, edited by R. Krahl, 19–27. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

Gutaker, R.M., S.C. Groen, E.S. Bellis, J.Y. Choi, I.S. Pires, R.K. Bocinsky, E.R. Slayton, O. Wilkins, C.C. Castillo, M.M. Oliveira, D. Q. Fuller, J. A. d’Alpoim Guedes, J. R. Lasky, and M.D. Purugganan 2020 “Genomic history and ecology of the geographic spread of rice.” Nature Plants 6: 492–502 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-0659-6

Guy, J 2010 “Rare and strange goods, international trade in ninth-century Asia.” In Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds, edited by R. Krahl, 19–27. Washington, DC: The Smithsonian Institution.

Hadad, S. 2000 “Incised glass vessels from the Umayyad and Abbasid-Fatimid Periods at Bet Shean, Israel.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 317: 63–73. https://doi.org/10.2307/1357484 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1357484

Hallett, J. 2000 “Trade and innovation: The rise of the pottery industry in Abbasid Basra.” Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Oxford.

“Pearl cups like the moon: The Abbasid reception of Chinese ceramics.” In Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds, edited by R. Krahl, 75–81. Washington, DC: The Smithsonian Institution.

Haq, S. N. 1994 Names, Natures and Things: The Alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan and his Kitab al-Ahjar (Book of Stones). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Harper, K. 2017 The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv9b2txr DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv9b2txr

Heidemann, S. 2006 “The history of the industrial and commercial area of ‘Abbasid Al-Raqqa, called Al-Raqqa Al-Muhtariqa.” Bulletin of SOAS 69(1): 33–52. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X06000024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X06000024

Henderson, J. 1989 “The scientific analysis of ancient glass and its archaeological interpretation.” In Scientific Analysis in Archaeology and its Interpretation, edited by J. Henderson, 30–62. Oxford University Committee on Archaeology Monograph no. 19, UCLA Institute of Archaeology Research Tools 5. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

“An investigation of early Islamic glass production at Raqqa, Syria.” In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology, edited by P. Vandiver, J. R. Druzik, J. L. Galvan Madrid, I. C. Freestone and G. S. Wheeler, 433–444. Materials Research Society Proceedings IV. Columbus, OH: The Materials Research Society.

The Science and Archaeology of Materials. London: Routledge.

“Tradition and experiment in 1st millennium AD glass production—the emergence of early Islamic glass technology in late antiquity.” Accounts of Chemical Research 35: 594–602. http://doi-org.nottingham.idm.oclc.org/10.1021/ar0002020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ar0002020

Ancient Glass: An Interdisciplinary Exploration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Henderson, J. and J. A. Allan. 1990 “Enamels on Ayyubid and Mamluk glass fragments.” Archaeomaterials 4: 167–183.

Henderson J., S. McLoughlin and D. McPhail. 2004 “Radical changes in Islamic glass technology: Evidence for conservatism and experimentation with new glass recipes from early and middle Islamic Raqqa, Syria.” Archaeometry 46: 439–468. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2004.00167.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2004.00167.x

Henderson, J., K. Challis, S. O’Hara, S. McLoughlin, A. Gardner and G. Priestnall. 2005 “Experiment and innovation: Early Islamic industry at al-Raqqa, Syria.” Antiquity 79: 130–145. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00113754 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00113754

Henderson, J., J. Evans and Y. Barkoudah. 2009 “The roots of provenance: glass, plants and isotopes in the Islamic Middle East.” Antiquity 83: 414–429. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00098525 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00098525

Henderson, J., J. Evans and K. Nikita. 2010 “Isotopic evidence for the primary production, provenance and trade of Late Bronze Age glass in the Mediterranean.” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 10(1): 1–24.

Henderson, J., S. Chenery, E. Faber and J. Kröger. 2016 “The use of electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the investigation of 8th–14th century plant ash glasses from the Middle East.” The Microchemical Journal 128: 134–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2016.03.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2016.03.013

Henderson, J., H. Ma and J. Evans. 2020 “Glass production for the Silk Road? Provenance and trade of Islamic glasses using isotopic and chemical analyses in a geological context.” Journal of Archaeological Science 119, 105164. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2020.105164 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2020.105164

Henderson, J., S. Chenery, E. W. Faber and J. Kröger. 2021 “Political and technological changes, glass provenance and a new glass production model along the west Asian Silk Road.” In From Artificial Stone to Translucent Mass-Product: Innovations in the Technologies of Glass and Their Social Consequences between Bronze Age and Antiquity, edited by F. Klimscha, H.-J. Karlsen, S. Hansen and J. Renn. Berlin Studies of the Ancient World volume 67. Berlin: edition Topoi. edition-topoi.org/books/details/1598

Hill, D. V., R. I. Speakman and M. D. Glascock. 2004 “Chemical and mineralogical characterization of Sasanian and early Islamic glazed ceramics from the Deh Luran plain, southwestern Iran.” Archaeometry 46: 585–605. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2004.00175.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2004.00175.x

Ho, Chiumei. 1995 “Turquoise jars and other West Asian ceramics in China.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 9: 19–39.

Holmes, C. and S. Standen. 2018 “Introduction: Towards a global Middle Ages.” Past & Present 238(13): 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1093/pastj/gty030 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/pastj/gty030

Hsieh, M-L. 2010 “The navigational route of the Belitung wreck and the late Tang ceramic trade.” In Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds, edited by R. Krahl, 137–144. Washington, DC: The Smithsonian Institution.

Hsu, Yia-Kang, P. J. Bray, P. Hommel, A. M. Pollard and J. Rawson. 2016 “Tracing the flows of copper and copper alloys in the early Iron Age societies of the eastern Eurasian steppe.” Antiquity 90: 357–375. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.22

Irwin, R. 1998 “A note on textual sources for the history of glass.” In Gilded and enameled glass from the Middle East, edited by R. Ward, 24–26. London: The British Museum Press.

Jackson, C. M. 2005 “Glass making in Bronze Age Egypt.” Science 308: 1750–1752. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1112553 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1112553

Jackson, C. M and H. Foster. 2015 “The last Roman glass in Britain: Recycling at the periphery of the empire.” In Neighbours and Successors of Rome: Traditions of Glass Production and Use in Europe and the Middle East in the Later 1st Millennium AD, edited by D. Keller, J. Price and C. Jackson, 6–14. Oxford: Oxbow Books. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dq24.6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dq24.6

Jankowiak, M. 2021 “Dirham flows into northern and eastern Europe and the rhythms of the slave trade with the Islamic world.” In Viking-Age Trade: Silver, Slaves and Gotland, edited by J. Gruszczynski, M. Jankowiak, J. Shepard, 105–131. Abingdon: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315231808-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315231808-6

Jordan, P., K. Gibbs, P. Hommel, H. Piezonka, F. Silva and J. Steele. 2016 “Modelling the diffusion of pottery technologies across Afro-Eurasia: Emerging insights and future research.” Antiquity 90: 590–603. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.68 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.68

Jordan, P. and M. Zvelebil. 2009 “Ex oriente lux: The prehistory of hunter-gatherer ceramic dispersals.” In Ceramics before Farming: The Dispersal of Pottery among Prehistoric Eurasian Hunter-Gatherers, edited by P. Jordan and M. Zvelebil, 33–89. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Jiang J. 2010 “Glass: top quality works in the silk road trade.” In Glass along the Silk Road from 200 BC to AD 1000, edited by

B. Zorn and A. Hilgner, 183–189. Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum.

Kato, N., I. Nakai and Y. Shindo. 2009 “Change in chemical composition of early Islamic glass excavated in Raya, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt: On-site analyses using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.” Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 1698–1707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.03.020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.03.020

“Transitions in Islamic plant ash glass vessels: On-site chemical analyses conducted at the Raya al Tur area on the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.” Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 1381–1395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.12.042 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.12.042

Keller, D. 2015 “Continuity and change in Byzantine and early Islamic glass from Syene/Aswan and Elephantine, Egypt.” In Neighbours and Successors of Rome: Traditions of Glass Production and Use in Europe and the Middle East in the Later 1st Millennium AD, edited by D. Keller, J. Price and C. Jackson, 194–199. Oxford: Oxbow Books. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dq24.23 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dq24.23

Khalil, I. and J. Henderson. 2011 “An interim report on new evidence for early Islamic glass production at al-Raqqa, northern Syria.” Journal of Glass Studies 53: 237–242.

Killick, D. and T. Fenn. 2012 “Archaeometallurgy: The study of preindustrial mining and metallurgy.” Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 559–575. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145719 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145719

Komaroff, L. 2004 “Colour, precious metal and fire: Islamic ceramics and glass.” In The Arts of Fire: Islamic Influences on Glass and Ceramics of the Italian Renaissance, edited by C. Hess, 35–53. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum.

Kouwatli, I., H. H. Curvers, B. Stuart, Y. Sablerolles, J. Henderson and P. Reynolds. 2008 “A pottery and glass production site in Beirut (BEY 015).” Bulletin d’Archéologie et d’Architecture Libanaises 10: 103–130.

Krahl, R. 2010 “Tang Blue-and-White.” In Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds, edited by R. Krahl, 209–211. Washington, DC: The Smithsonian Institution.

Kröger, J. 1995 Nishapur: Glass of the Early Islamic Period. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

“Scratched glass.” In Glass: Sasanian Antecedents to European Imitations, edited by S. Goldstein, 140–155. London: The Noor Foundation.

Krom, M., R. Cliff, L. Eijsink, B. Herut and R. Chester. 1999 “The characterisation of Saharan dusts and Nile particulate matter in surface sediments from the Levantine basin using Sr isotopes.” Marine Geology 155: 319–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(98)00130-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(98)00130-3

Lamm, J. C. 1929–1930 Mittelalterliche Gläser und Steinschnittarbeiten aus dem Nahen Osten. Forschungen zur islamischen Kunst 5. Berlin: D. Reimer.

Oriental Glass of Medieval Date Found in Sweden and the Early History of Lustre-Painting. Kungliga Vitterhetsakademien Historic och Anrikvitets Akademiens Handlingar, 50(1). Stockholm: Wahlstrom & Widstrand.

Lane, A. 1947 Early Islamic Pottery, Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia. London: Faber and Faber.

Langton, J. W., B. Gratuze, G-H. Kim, L. Dussubieux and I. Lee. 2010 “Silk Road glass in ancient Korea: the contribution of chemical compositional analysis.” In Glass along the Silk Road from 200 BC to AD 1000, edited by B. Zorn and A. Hilgner, 221–237. Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum.

Laufer, B. 1919 Sino-Iranica: Chinese Contributions to the History of Civilization in Ancient Iran, with Special Reference to the History of Cultivated Plants and Products. Chicago, IL: Field Museum of Natural History. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.3538 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.3538

Lee, I. 2010 Early glass in Korean tombs- cultural context.” In Glass along the Silk Road from 200 BC to AD 1000, edited by

B. Zorn and A. Hilgner, 211-219. Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum.

Lerner, J. A. 2005 “Aspects of Assimilation: The Funerary Practices of Furnishings.” Sino-Platonic Paper 168: 1–50.

Li, C., H. Li, Y. Cui, C. Xie, D. Cai, W. Li, V. H. Mair, Z. Xu, Q. Zhang, I. Abuduresule, L. Jin, H. Zhu and H. Zhou. 2010 “Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age 2010.” BMC Biology 8:15. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-8-15 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-8-15

Lapidus, I.M. 2014 A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139048828 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139048828

Li, Q., J. Jiang, X. Li, S. Liu, D. Gu, J. Henderson. 2016 “Chemical analysis of Tang Dynasty glass vessels unearthed from the underground palace of the Famen Temple using a portable XRF spectrometer.” In Recent Research in the Scientific Investigations of Ancient Glass, edited by G. Gan, Q. Li and J. Henderson, 157–177. Singapore: World Scientific. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814630290_0008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814630290_0008

Long, T., M. Wagner, D. Demske, C. Leipe and P. E. Tarasov. 2017 “Cannabis in Eurasia: Origin of human use and Bronze Age trans-continental connections.” Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 26: 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-016-0579-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-016-0579-6

Lu, Q. Q., J. Henderson, Y. Wang and B. Wang. 2021 “Natron glass beads reveal early silk road between the Mediterranean and China in the 1st Millennium BCE.” Scientific Reports 11(3537): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82245-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82245-w

Mair, V. H. 2008 “Conclusion.” In The Prehistory of the Silk Road, by E.E. Kuzmina, edited by V. H. Mair, 108–114. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Mason, R. B. and E. J. Keall. 1991 “The ‘Abbasid glazed wares of Siraf and Basra connection: Petrographic analysis.” Iran 29: 51–66. https://doi.org/10.2307/4299848 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/4299848

Matin, M., M. Tite and O. Watson. 2018 “On the origins of tin-opacified ceramic glazes: New evidence from early Islamic Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia.” Journal of Archaeological Science 97: 42–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.06.011

Matin, M. 2019 “Tin-based opacifiers in archaeological glass and ceramic glazes: a review and new perspectives.” Archaeological and Anthropological Science 11: 1155–1167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.06.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-018-0735-2

McCormick, M., U. Büntgen, M. A. Cane, E. R. Cook, K. Harper, P. J. Huybers, T. Litt, S. W. Manning, P. A. Mayewski, A.F.M. More, K. Nicolussi and W. Tegel. 2012 “Climate change during and after the Roman Empire: Reconstructing the past from scientific and historical evidence.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 43: 169–220. https://doi.org/10.1162/JINH_a_00379 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/JINH_a_00379

Meinecke, M. 1991 “Raqqa on the Euphrates: Recent excavations at the residence of Harun er-Rashid.” In The Near East in Antiquity, Volume II, edited by S. Kerner, 17–32. Ammann: Goethe Institut.

Meinecke, M. and J.-C. Heusch. 1985 “Grabungen im ‘Abbasidischen Palastareal vom ar-Raqqa/ar-Raqqa.” Damaszener Mitteilungen 1: 85-105.

Milwright, M. 2010 An Introduction to Islamic Archaeology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748623105.001.0001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748623105.001.0001

Mirti, P., M. Pace, M. N. Ponzi and M. Aceto. 2008 “ICP-MS analysis of glass fragments of Parthian and Sasanian epoch from Seleucia and Veh Ardašir (central Iraq).” Archaeometry 50: 429–450. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2007.00344.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2007.00344.x

Mirti, P., M. Pace, M. Malandrino and M. N. Ponzi. 2009 “Sasanian glass from Veh Ardašir: New evidences by ICP-MS analysis.” Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 1061–1069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2008.12.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2008.12.008

Moorey, P.R.S. 1999 Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries. The archaeological Evidence. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

Needell, C. Swan 2018 “Cirebon: Islamic glass from a 10th-century shipwreck in the Java Sea.” Journal of Glass Studies 60: 69–113.

Neff, H. 2014 “Pots as signals: Explaining the enigma of long-distance ceramic exchange.” In Craft and Science: International Perspectives on Archaeological Ceramics, edited by M. Martinón-Torres, 1–11. Doha, Qatar: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation. https://doi.org/10.5339/uclq.2014.cas.ch1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5339/uclq.2014.cas.ch1

Nenna, M.-D. 2015 “Primary glass workshops in Graeco-Roman Egypt: Preliminary report on the excavations of the site of Beni Salama, Wadi Natrun (2003, 2005-9).” In Glass of the Roman World, edited by J. Bayley, I. Freestone and

C. Jackson, 1-22. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Nenna, M.-D., M. Picon, V. Thirion-Merle and M. Vichy. 2005 “Ateliers primaires du Wadi Natrun: nouvelles découvertes.” Annales of the 16e Congrès de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre, London 2003, 59–63. Nottingham: AIHV.

Neri, E., B. Gratuze and N. Schibille. 2018 “The trade of glass beads in early medieval Illyricum: Towards an Islamic monopoly.” Journal of archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 11: 1107–1122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-017-0583-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-017-0583-5

Northedge, A. 2005a “Remarks on Samarra and the archaeology of large cities.” Antiquity 79: 119–129. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00113742 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00113742

b The Historical Topography of Samarra, Samarra Studies I. London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq: Fondation Max van Berchem.

Northedge, A. and R. Faulkner. 1987 “The 1986 survey season at Samarra.” Iraq 49: 143–173. https://doi.org/10.2307/4200270 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/4200270

Phelps M., I. Freestone, Y. Gorin-Rosen, B. Gratuze and J. Langton. 2015 “Technological change and provenance of glass in Early Islamic Palestine.” 20th Congress of the International Association for the History of Glass, Friborg-Romont, Switzerland, Programme and Abstracts, 157.

Phelps, M., I. C. Freestone, Y. Gorin-Rosen and B. Gratuze. 2016 “Natron glass production and supply in the late antique and early medieval Near East: The effect of the Byzantine-Islamic transition.” Journal of archaeological science 75: 57–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.006

Phelps, M. 2018 “Glass supply and trade in early Islamic Ramla: An investigation of the plant ash glass.” In Things that Travelled, edited by D. Rosenow, A. Meek, M. Phelps and I. Freestone, 236–282. London: UCL Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt21c4tb3.17

Pierce, D. E. 2017 “Finding class in the glass: Obsidian source as a costly signal.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 48: 217–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2017.05.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2017.05.001

Priestman, S. 2016 “The Silk Road or the Sea? Sasanian and Islamic exports to Japan.” Journal of Islamic Archaeology 3: 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1558/jia.v3i1.26266 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1558/jia.v3i1.26266

Priestman, S.M.N. 2021 Ceramic Exchange and the Indian Ocean Economy (AD 400–1275). London: The British Museum.

Pulak, C. 2001 “The cargo of the Uluburun ship and evidence for trade with the Aegean and beyond, in Italy and Cyprus in Antiquity, 1500–450 B.C.” In Proceedings of an International Symposium Held at the Italian Academy for Advanced Studies in America at Columbia University, November 16–18, 2000, edited by L. Bonfante and V. Karageorghis, 13–60. Nicosia: Costakis and Leto Severis Foundation.

Purugganan, M.D. 2020 “Genomic history and ecology of the geographic spread of rice.” Nature Plants 6: 492–502. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-0659-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-0659-6

Respess, A. 2020 “The abode of water: Shipwreck evidence and the maritime circulation of medicine between Iran and China in the 9th through 14th centuries.” Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Michigan.

Rougeulle, A. 1991 “Les importations de céramiques chinoises dans le golfe arabo-persique (VlIIè-IXè siècles).” Archéologie Islamique 2: 5–44.

Sayre, E. V. and R. W. Smith. 1961 “Compositional categories of ancient glass.” Science 133: 1824–1826. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.133.3467.1824 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.133.3467.1824

Schibille, N., A. Meek, M. Wypyski, R. Haddon, J. Kröger and M. Rosser-Owen. 2018 “The glass walls of Samarra (Iraq): Ninth-century Abbasid glass production and imports.” PLOS ONE 13(8): e0201749. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201749 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201749

Schibille, N., A. J. De Juan, M. T. Casal García and C. Guerrot. 2020 “Ex novo development of lead glassmaking in early Umayyad Spain.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117: 16243–16249. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2003440117 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2003440117

Shatzmiller, M. 1994 Labour in the Medieval Islamic World. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004491410 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004491410

Shen, H.-M. 2017 “The China-Abbasid ceramics trade during the ninth and tenth centuries: Chinese ceramics circulating in the Middle East.” In Blackwell Companion to Islamic Art and Architecture, edited by G. Necipoglu and F. B. Flood, 197–217. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119069218.ch8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119069218.ch8

Shepard, J. 2018 “Networks.” Past & Present 238(13): 116–157. https://doi.org/10.1093/pastj/gty033 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/pastj/gty033

Shindo, Y. 2015 “Islamic glass with impressed decoration: the problems of dating and production.” Annales du 19e Congrès de l’Association internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre (Piran 2012), edited by I. Lazar, 455-446. Thessalonika: Koper.

“Study on the early Islamic glass excavated in Paykend in the Bukhara oasis, Uzbekistan.” In Annales of the 20e Congrès de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre, 293-299. Romont: Switzerland.

Shortland, A. J., S. Kirk, K. Eremin, P. Degryse and M. Walton. 2018 “The analysis of Late Bronze Age glass from Nuzi and the question of the origin of glass-making.” Archaeometry 60: 764–783. https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12332 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12332

Simpson, S. J. 2014 “Sasanian glass: An overview.” In Neighbours and Successors of Rome: Traditions of Glass Production and Use in Europe and the Middle East in the Later 1st Millennium AD, edited by D. Keller, J. Price and C. Jackson, 200–231. Oxford: Oxbow Books. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dq24.24 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dq24.24

Spengler, R. N. 2019 Fruit from the Sands: The Silk Road Origins of the Foods We Eat. Oakland: University of California Press. https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520972780 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520972780

Stargardt, J. 2014 “Indian Ocean trade in the ninth and tenth centuries: Demand, distance, and profit.” South Asian Studies 30: 35–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/02666030.2014.892375 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02666030.2014.892375

Sun, J. 2007 “South China Sea sunken ship and the export of porcelain in the Song Dynasty.” Chinese Cultural Heritage 4: 33–45.

Swan, C. M., T. Rehren, J. Lankton, B. Gratuze and R. H. Brill. 2017 “Compositional observations for Islamic Glass from Siraf, Iran, in the Corning Museum of Glass collection.” Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 16: 102–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.08.020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.08.020

Taniichi, T. 2010 “Sasanian and post-Sasanian plant ash glass vessels delivered to Japan.” In Glass along the Silk Road from 200 BC to AD 1000, edited by B. Zorn and A. Hilgner, 239–246. Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum.

Tsafrir, Y. 2009 “Shops and workshops: Trade, workshops and shops in Bet Shean/Scythopolis, 4th–8th centuries.” In Byzantine Trade, 4th–12th centuries: The Archaeology of Local, Regional and International Exchange, Papers of the Thirty-eighth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, St. John’s College, University of Oxford, March 2004, edited by M. M. Mango, 61–81. Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies Publications 14. Farnham: Ashgate.

Ullmann, M. 1970 Die Medizin im Islam. Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abteilung I, Ergänzungsband vi, Abschnitt 1. Leiden: Brill.

Von Richthofen, F. 1877 “Ober die zentralasiatischen Seidenstrassen bis zum 2. Jh. N. Chr.” Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft for Erdkunde zu Berlin 4: 96–122.

Walker, B. J., T. Greer, R. al-Shqour, A. LaBianca, R. D. Bates, J. P. Hudon, W. Schultz, J. Henderson, C. Corbino,

S. Laparidou, A. Hansen and Ø. S. LaBianca. 2016–2017 “Tall Hisban 2016 Excavation Season: Household Archaeology in the Medieval Village.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 59: 557–596.

Walton, M. S., A. Shortland, S. Kirk and P. Degryse. 2009 “Evidence for the trade of Mesopotamian and Egyptian glass to Mycenaean Greece.” Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 1496–1503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.02.012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.02.012

Wang, X. 2010 “On glassware from the tombs of the Sui and Tang dynasties.” In Glass along the Silk Road from 200 BC to AD 1000, edited by B. Zorn and A. Hilgner, 163–175. Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum.

Wang, Y., T. Rehren, Y. Tan, D. Cong, P. W. Jia, J. Henderson, H. Ma, A. Betts and K. Chen. 2020 “New evidence for the transcontinental spread of early faience.” Journal of Archaeological Science 116: 105093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2020.105093 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2020.105093

Wang, D., R. Wen, J. Henderson, X. Hu and W. Li. 2020 “The chemical composition and manufacturing technology of glass beads excavated from the Hetian Bizili site, Xinjiang.” Heritage Science 8: 127. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-020-00469-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-020-00469-x

Watson, A.M. 1974 “The Arab agricultural revolution and its diffusion, 700–1100.” The Journal of Economic History 34: 8–35. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022050700079602 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022050700079602

Watson, O. 1998 “Pottery and glass: Lustre and enamel.” In Gilded and enameled glass from the Middle East, edited by R. Ward, 15–19. London: The British Museum Press.

“VIII, Report on the glazed ceramics.” In Raqqa I: Die Frühislamische Keramik von Tell Aswad, edited by P. A. Miglus, 81–87. Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.

Ceramics from Islamic Lands. London: Thames & Hudson, in association with the al-Sabah Collection, Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah, Kuwait National Museum.

“Revisiting Samarra: The rise of Islamic glazed pottery.” Beiträge zur Islamischen Kunst und Archäologie, Volume 4, edited by J. Gonnella, R. Abdellatif and S. Struth, 123–142. Wiesbaden: Dr Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

“Ceramics and Circulation 800–1250.” In A Companion to Islamic Art and Architecture, v. 1, edited by B. Flood and G. Necipoglu, 478–500. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119069218.ch19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119069218.ch19

Whitehouse, D. 2002 “The transition from natron to plant ash in the Levant.” Journal of Glass Studies 44: 193–196.

Islamic glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, vol. 1: Objects with Scratch-Engraved and Wheel-Cut Ornament. Corning, NY: The Corning Museum of Glass.

Whitfield, S. 2007 “Was there a silk road?” Asian Medicine 3: 201–213. https://doi.org/10.1163/157342008X307839 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/157342008X307839

Silk, Slaves and Stupas, Material Culture and the Silk Road. Oakland: University of California Press. https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520957664 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520957664

Wickham, C. 2004 “The Mediterranean around 800: On the brink of the second trade cycle.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 58: 161–174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3591384

Wood, N. and S. Priestman. 2016 “New light on Chinese Tang Dynasty and Iraqi Blue and White in the ninth century: The material from Siraf, Iran.” Bulletin of Chinese Ceramic Art and Archaeology 7: 47–60.

Wood, N., M. S. Tite, C. Doherty and B. Gilmore. 2007 “A technological examination of ninth-century AD Abbasid blue-and-white ware from Iraq, and its comparison with eighth century AD Chinese blue-and-white sancai ware.” Archaeometry 49(4): 665–684. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2007.00327.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2007.00327.x

Wright, H. 1984 “Early seafarers of the Comoro Islands: The Dembeni Phase of the IXth–Xth Centuries A.D.” Azania 19: 13–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/00672708409511327 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00672708409511327

Wright, T., ed. 1848 Early Travels in Palestine, Comprising the Narratives of Arculf, Willibald, Bernard, Sæwulf, Sigurd, Benjamin of Tudela, Sir John Maundeville, de la Brocquière, and Maundrell. London: Bohn.

Wypyski, M. T. 2010 “Compositional study of medieval Islamic enameled glass from the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Studies in Art, Science and Technology 1: 109–132.

“Chemical analysis of early Islamic glass from Nishapur.” Journal of Glass Studies 57: 121–136.

Zahory, M. 1966 Flora Palaestina, volume 1. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Zhou, X., J. Yu, R. J. Spengler, H. Shen, K. Zhao, J. Ge, Y. Bao, L. Junchi, Q. Yang, G. Chen, P. W. Jia and X. Li. 2020 “5,200-year-old cereal grains from the eastern Altai Mountains redate the trans-Eurasian crop exchange.” Nature Plants 6: 78–87. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-019-0581-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-019-0581-y

Zakharov, S.D. 2012 “Glass Beads from the Minino Archaeological Complex.” In The Archaeology of Medieval Novgorod in Context: Studies in Centre/Periphery Relations, edited by M. A. Brisbane, N. A. Makarov and E. N. Nosov, 122–138. Translated by K. Judelson. Oxford: Oxbow Books. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dqcg.16 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dqcg.16

Zhu, J., H. Ma, N. Li, J. Henderson and M.D. Glascock. 2016 “The provenance of export porcelain recovered from the Nan’ao One: A shipwreck in the South China Sea.” Antiquity 90: 798–808. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.67 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.67

Published

2022-02-16

How to Cite

Henderson, J. . (2022). The Politics of Production, Glass Provenance and Social Context on the Early Islamic Silk Roads. Journal of Islamic Archaeology, 8(2), 203–237. https://doi.org/10.1558/jia.20773

Issue

Section

Articles