From Baybars to Qaytbay

The Untold Story of the Ludd Decree


  • Gali Agnon Hebrew University of Jerusalem



Epigraphy, Ludd, Palestine, Decrees, Mamlūk, Qāytbāy


The purpose of this study is to decipher an unpublished decree inscription from the late 15th century CE/late 9th century AH found in the Great Mosque of Ludd. This article explores the historic events linked to the decree’s inscription, which unveils some of the social and political systems that operated in the time of its creation. Deciphering the content of the decree is complemented by a study of the context of its placement. Furthermore, this article considers some of the recent history of the Ludd Decree inscription, from the time of its removal from the original location to its replacement with another inscription. This paper will also demonstrate that The Great Mosque of Ludd and the Mosque of al-'Umari are in fact two different mosques, as they have been mistakenly considered the same mosque due to the movement of inscriptions.

Author Biography

Gali Agnon, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Gali Agnon holds a Bachelor’s degree in Arabic Language and Literature from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and received her MA at Freie Universität where she studied the history of the Islamicate cultures in the Middle Ages. She is a member of “Maktoob—The Arabic-Hebrew Translators’ Forum,” and is currently publishing a colloquial Arabic Palestinian Dialect textbook for Israelis. The current work is her first publication.


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How to Cite

Agnon, G. . (2022). From Baybars to Qaytbay: The Untold Story of the Ludd Decree. Journal of Islamic Archaeology, 8(2), 187–201.