From Baybars to Qaytbay

The Untold Story of the Ludd Decree

Authors

  • Gali Agnon Hebrew University of Jerusalem

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/jia.18720

Keywords:

Epigraphy, Ludd, Palestine, Decrees, Mamlūk, Qāytbāy

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to decipher an unpublished decree inscription from the late 15th century CE/late 9th century AH found in the Great Mosque of Ludd. This article explores the historic events linked to the decree’s inscription, which unveils some of the social and political systems that operated in the time of its creation. Deciphering the content of the decree is complemented by a study of the context of its placement. Furthermore, this article considers some of the recent history of the Ludd Decree inscription, from the time of its removal from the original location to its replacement with another inscription. This paper will also demonstrate that The Great Mosque of Ludd and the Mosque of al-'Umari are in fact two different mosques, as they have been mistakenly considered the same mosque due to the movement of inscriptions.

Author Biography

Gali Agnon, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Gali Agnon holds a Bachelor’s degree in Arabic Language and Literature from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and received her MA at Freie Universität where she studied the history of the Islamicate cultures in the Middle Ages. She is a member of “Maktoob—The Arabic-Hebrew Translators’ Forum,” and is currently publishing a colloquial Arabic Palestinian Dialect textbook for Israelis. The current work is her first publication.

References

Primary Sources

al-Muqdassi. 2003 Ahsan al-Taqasim fi ma'rifat al-Aqalim. Abu Dhabi: Dar al-Suaidi.

Mujir al-Din al-'Ulaymi. 1999 al-'Uns al-Jalil bi-Ta'rikh al-Quds wa-l-Khalil. Amman and Hebron: Maktabet Dandis.

Ibn Iyas, Muhammad. 1960 Bada'i' al-Zuhur fi Waqa'i' al-Dhuhur. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah.

Ibn Shahin, 'Abd al-Basit Khalil. 2002 Nil al-Amal fi Dhiil al-Dual. Beirut: al-Maktabah al-'Asriyyah.

Qalqashandi, Ahmad Ibn 'Ali. 1987 Subh al-A'sha fi Sina't al-Insha'. Damascus: Dar al-Fikr.

Salih al-Sayd, F. 1990 Mu'jam al-Alqab wa-l-Asma' al-Musta’ara fi al-Ta'rikh al-'Arabi al-Islami. Beirut: Dar al-'Ilmli-l-Malayyn.

al-Sakhawi, Shams al-Din. 1992 al-Daw' al-Lami' li-Ahl al-Qarn al-Tasi', Beirut: Dar al-Jil.

Wajiz al-Kalam fi al-Dhil 'ala Dual al-Islam. Beirut: Mu'asasit al-Risalah.

al-Zirkali, Khair al-Din. 1980 al-A'lam: Qamus Tarajem li-Ashhar al-Rijal wa-l-Nisa' min al-'Arab wa-l-Musta'ribin wa-l-Mustashriqin, Beirut: Dar al-'Ilm li-l-Malayyn.

Yaqut al-Hamawi. 1977 Mu'jam al-buldan. Beirut: Dar Sadir.

Secondary Sources

al-Dabbagh, M. 1988 Biladuna Filastin. Kufar Qara': Dar al-Shafq li-l-Nashr wa-l-Tawzi'.

al-Far, M. 2009 Madinat al-Lidd: Mawqi'an wa-Shahratan wa-Ta'rikhan wa-Nidalan. Beirut.

al-Nimr, Ihsan. 1985 Tarikh Jabal Nablus wa-l-Buqala'. Nablus.

Amiram, D.H.K. 1996 “Location index for earthquakes in Israel since 100 B.C.E.” Israel Exploration Journal 46(1/2): 120–130.

Amitai, R. 2006 “Some remarks on the inscription of Baybars at Maqam Nabi Musa.” In Mamluk and Ottoman Studies in Honor of Michael Winter, edited by D. J. Wasserstein and A. Ayalon, 45–53. London: Routledge.

Ayalon, D. 1966 “The Mamluks and the naval power.” Israeli Academy of Science and Humanities 1: 1–10.

Bizu, Basil M. 1990 al-Lid. Amman: Dar al-Ibda' li-l-Nashr wa-l-Tawzi '.

City Plan and Budget for the Year of 1994. Finance Office, Ludd Municipality (Hebrew).

“The testimony of Fatoum al-Tartir.” In Sedek, vol. 1, edited by T. Gardi, 64–67. Tel Aviv: Pardes.

Blair, S. 1988 Islamic Inscriptions. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Burgoyne, M. H. 1987 Mamluk Jerusalem: An Architectural Study. London: British School of Archeology in Jerusalem.

Clermont-Ganneau, C. S. 1971 Archaeological Researches in Palestine During the Years 1873-1874. Jerusalem: Raritas.

Da’adli, T. 2020 “Jerusalem Mamluk regional building style as demonstrated at Maqam al-Nabi Musa.” Der Islam 97(2): 421–455. https://doi.org/10.1515/islam-2020-0028 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/islam-2020-0028

Daisuke, I. 2009 “The financial reforms of Sultan Qaytbay.” Mamluk Studies Review 13(1): 27–51.

Drori, D., ed. 1992 The Land of Israel in the Mamluk Period. Jerusalem: Yad Ben-Zvi (Hebrew).

Eini, Y. and O. Orion, eds. 1988 The Bedouins: Lists and Articles. Beersheba: Ben Gurion University (Hebrew).

Galor, K. 2017 Finding Jerusalem: Archaeology between Science and Ideology. Oakland: University of California Press. https://doi.org/10.1525/luminos.29 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/luminos.29

al-Ghabari, U., ed. 2012 Remembering al-Lydd. Tel Aviv: Zochrot (Hebrew and Arabic).

Ilan, Z. 1982 Tour Sites in Israel. Tel Aviv: Am Oved.

Khaliliee, H. 2008 “The Ribat of Arsuf and the coastal defense system in early Islamic Palestine.” Journal of Islamic Studies 19(2): 159–177. https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/etn006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/etn006

Little, D. 2004 “The governance of Jerusalem under Qaytbay.” In The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian Politics and Society, edited by M. Winter and A. Levanoni, 143–162. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047402633_013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047402633_013

Luz, N. 2014 “Reflections on Maqam Nabi Musa.” Lecture in Honor of Amiqam Elad: The Land of Israel and the Surrounding Areas in the Early Muslim Period, edited by Yad Ben Zvi, 2–4. Jerusalem: Yad Ben Zvi (Hebrew).

Mayer, L. A., and Y. Pinkerfeld. 1950 Some Principle Religious Buildings in Israel. Jerusalem: Committee for the Preservation of Muslim Religious Buildings, Ministry of Religious Affairs.

Munayyer, S. 1998 “The fall of Lydda.” Journal of Palestine Studies 27(4): 93–95. https://doi.org/10.1525/jps.1998.27.4.00p0007d DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/jps.1998.27.4.00p0007d

Nimer, 'A. 1996 Madinat al-Lid: bayyarat al-dhikrayat. Jerusalem: Wizarat al-Awqaf wa-l-sho'un al-Diniyya.

O’Kane, B. 2013 “Medium and message in the monumental epigraphy of medieval Egypt.” In Calligraphy and Architecture in the Muslim World, edited by M. Gharipour and I. C. Schick, 416–430. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Petersen, A. 2001 Gazetteer for Buildings in Muslim Palestine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Prawer, J. 1984 A History of the Latin Kingdom: The Crusades and the Second Kingdom. Jerusalem: Bialik Publishing (Hebrew).

Pringle, D. 1998 The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sharon, M. 1997–2017 Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004470033 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004470033

Shavit, A., T. Da’adli and Y. Gadot, eds. 2017 Lod “Diospolis—City of God”: Collected Papers on the History and Archaeology of Lod, Vol. 3. Lod: Tagliot.

Tamari, S. 1979 “Nabi Musa Near Jerico.” Katedra 11: 153–180 (Hebrew).

Taragan, H. 2004 “The tomb of Sayyidna Ali in Arsuf: The story of a holy place.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 14(2): 83–102.https://doi.org/10.1017/S1356186304003682 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1356186304003682

“Doors that open meaning: Baybars’s Red Mosque in Safad.” In The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian Politics and Society, edited by M. Winter and A. Levanoni, 3–20. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047402633_007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047402633_007

“Sign of the times: Reusing the past in Baybars’s architecture in Palestine.” In Mamluks and Ottomans: Studies in Honor of Michael Winter, edited by D. Wasserstein and A. Ayalon, 54–66. London: Routledge.

-2007 “Holy place in the making: Maqam Nabi Musa in the early Mamluk Period.” ARAM 18–19: 621–639. https://doi.org/10.2143/ARAM.19.0.2020749 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2143/ARAM.19.0.2020749

Tütüncü, M. 2008 Turkish Palestine (1069–1917): Inscriptions from al-Khalil (Hebron), Nabi Musa and other Palestinian cities under Turkish Rule. Haarlem: SOTA, Turkestan and Azerbaijan Research Center.

Waserman, A. n.d. The Plain of Ludd in: Khevel Eretz. Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew).

Published

2022-02-16

How to Cite

Agnon, G. . (2022). From Baybars to Qaytbay: The Untold Story of the Ludd Decree. Journal of Islamic Archaeology, 8(2), 187–201. https://doi.org/10.1558/jia.18720

Issue

Section

Articles