The Unfulfilled Promise of Cross-Cultural, Interdisciplinary Ancient History


  • Ryan Nichols California State University



Ancient China, G.E.R. Lloyd, Ancient Greece, Interdisciplinary Research, Psychology


This commentary focuses on G.E.R. Lloyd’s latest work, Ambivalences of Rationality (2018). The book is summarized chapter by chapter. Criticisms are presented with special attention to Lloyd’s unusual wealth of research from developmental psychology, cross-cultural psychology, anthropology, experimental linguistics and cognitive science. The commentary concludes that Lloyd has done a disservice to cited researchers in the mind sciences who investigate cross-cultural differences.

Author Biography

Ryan Nichols, California State University

Ryan Nichols is a professor of philosophy at California State Fullerton. Ryan’s interdisciplinary research is now focused on questions about the origins and maintenance of Chinese culture. In this area he writes about interactions between the physical ecology, culture, social psychology, emotion and cognition.


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Nichols, R. 2021. “Cross-cultural Cognitive Variation: A Review of Evidence about Holistic Cognitive Style for the Sake of Improving Cultural Evolutionary Understanding.” Under review.

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How to Cite

Nichols, R. . (2021). The Unfulfilled Promise of Cross-Cultural, Interdisciplinary Ancient History. Journal of Cognitive Historiography, 6(1-2), 180–190.



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