Gender politics, UK jazz festivals and COVID-19
Maintaining the momentum of change during a time of crisis
Keywords:gender, jazz festivals, COVID-19, diversity, women
Music festivals offer a valuable glimpse into the state of the current musical landscape. Through them we can follow the career trajectories of particular artists, spot genre trends and divergences, identify connections and differences, and make sense of emerging scenes. Equally, music festivals lay bare the continued inequalities that exist; inclusions and absences are starkly visible in festival line-ups, and marketing and communications provide inspiration for public debate and the fuel for change. For scholars, festivals offer a context through which to examine the complex politics of music, condensed into a specific time and place yet engaging with global trends and debates, with international artists and audiences, with the past and the future, all within the economic and social context of the music industries. From spring 2020, we could clearly plot through music festivals the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on live music as we have previously known it, the government-driven lockdowns and social distancing regulations bringing an abrupt halt to live performance and threatening the existence of many music festivals. This period of disruption extended also to the outreach, education, artist development, fundraising, partnership working, and overall strategies of festival teams, to include festival-driven and global attempts to address significant issues relating to access and diversity within the music industries. This article explores gender politics from the stage of UK jazz festivals and considers the momentum of gender-focused initiatives during a period of international crisis.
Attrep, K. (2018) ‘From Juke Joints to Jazz Jams: The Political Economy of Female Club Owners’. [email protected] 8/1: 9–23. https://doi.org/10.5429/2079-3871(2018)v8i1.3en DOI: https://doi.org/10.5429/2079-3871(2018)v8i1.3en
Bennett, A. (2004) Remembering Woodstock. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.
Björck, C., and Å. Bergman (2018) ‘Making Women in Jazz Visible: Negotiating Discourses of Unity and Diversity in Sweden and the US’. [email protected] 8/1: 42–58. https://doi.org/10.5429/2079-3871(2018)v8i1.5en DOI: https://doi.org/10.5429/2079-3871(2018)v8i1.5en
Black, P. (2017) ‘On Being and Becoming a Jazz Musician: Perceptions of Young Scottish Musicians’. London Review of Education 15/3: 339–57. https://doi.org/10.18546/LRE.15.3.02 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18546/LRE.15.3.02
Buscatto, M. (forthcoming 2021) Women in Jazz: Musicality, Femininity, Marginalization. New York and London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003177555
Clifford-Napoleone, A. (2020) Queering Kansas City Jazz: Gender, Performance and the History of a Scene. Lincoln, NE and London: University of Nebraska Press.
Edwards, T. (2021) ‘Female UK Jazz Musicians Face Sexual Harassment and Discrimination, Says Report’. The Guardian, 16 February. https://www.theguardian.com/music/2021/feb/16/female-uk-jazz-musicians-face-sexual-harassment-and-discrimination-says-report (accessed 6 August 2021).
Hytönen-Ng, E. (2013) Experiencing ‘Flow’ in Jazz Performance. London and New York: Routledge.
Kubacki, K. (2008) ‘Jazz Musicians: Creating Service Experience in Live Performance’. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 20/4: 303–313. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110810873516 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110810873516
Latour, B. (2020) ‘What Protective Measures Can You Think of So We Don’t Go Back to the Pre-Crisis Production Model?’ http://www.bruno-latour.fr/node/853.html (accessed 9 December 2021).
MacDonald, R., and G. Wilson (2005) ‘Musical Identities of Professional Jazz Musicians: A Focus Group Investigation’. Psychology of Music 33/4: 395–417. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735605056151 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735605056151
MacDonald, R., and G. Wilson (2006) ‘Constructions of Jazz: How Jazz Musicians Present their Collaborative Musical Practice’. Musicae Scientiae 10/1: 59–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/102986490601000104 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/102986490601000104
Martin, S. (2019) ‘South West England Open Mics: Gender Politics and Pints?’ In Towards Gender Equality in the Music Industry: Education, Practice and Strategies for Change, ed. C. Strong and S. Raine, 103–116. London: Bloomsbury Academic. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781501345531.ch-008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781501345531.ch-008
McGee, K. (2009) Some Like It Hot: Jazz Women in Film and Television. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
McKeage, K. M. (2004) ‘Gender and Participation in High School and College Instrumental Jazz Ensembles’. Journal of Research in Music Education 52/4: 343–56. https://doi.org/10.1177/002242940405200406 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002242940405200406
Patel, K. (2020) ‘Race and Craft in the Covid Spotlight’, in ‘Notes from Lockdown’. Soundings 75: 24–27.
Raine, S. (2019) ‘Keychanges at Cheltenham Jazz Festival: Issues of Gender in the UK Jazz Scene’. In Towards Gender Equality in the Music Industry: Education, Activism and Practice, ed. Sarah Raine and Catherine Strong, 187–200. New York: Bloomsbury.
Raine, S. (2020) Keychanges at Cheltenham Jazz Festival. Challenges for Women in Jazz and Ways Forward for Equal Gender Representation at Jazz Festivals: Findings and Recommendations. Open Access Report. https://www.academia.edu/44565803/Keychanges_at_Cheltenham_Jazz_Festival_Challenges_for_women_musicians_in_jazz_and_ways_forward_for_equal_representation_at_jazz_festivals
Raine, S., H. Medbøe and J. Dias (forthcoming) ‘Jazz Festivals in the Time of COVID-19: Exploring Exposed Fragilities, Community Resilience, and Industry Recovery from the Festival Stage’. In Rethinking the Music Business: Music Contexts, Rights, Data and COVID-19, ed. Guy Morrow, Daniel Nordgård and Peter Tschmuck. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781501345531.ch-014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781501345531.ch-014
Rimmer, M. (2018) ‘The Art of Survival: Community-based Arts Organisations in Times of Austerity’. Community Development Journal 55/2: 295–312. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsy036 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsy036
Rustin-Paschal, N. (2017) The Kind of Man I Am: Jazzmasculinity and the World of Charles Mingus Jr. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Rustin, N., and S. Tucker (2008) ‘Introduction’. In Big Ears: Listening for Gender in Jazz Studies, 1–28. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822389224-001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1134ftp.4
St John, G. (2017) Weekend Societies: Electronic Dance Music Festivals and Event Cultures. London and New York: Bloomsbury. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781501311413.ch-001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781501311413.ch-001
Taylor, I., S. Raine and C. Hamilton (2020) ‘Covid-19 and the UK Live Music Industry: A Crisis of Spatial Materiality’. Journal of Media Art Study and Theory 1/2: 219–41.
Taylor, I., S. Raine and C. Hamilton (forthcoming 2021) ‘Crisis as a Catalyst for Change: COVID-19, Spatiality and the UK Live Music Industry’. Special issue on Crises at Work: Potentials for Change? IASPM Journal 11/2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5429/2079-3871(2021)v11i1.3en
Tucker, S. (2002) ‘Big Ears: Listening for Gender in Jazz Studies’. Current Musicology 71–73 (Spring 2001–Spring 2002): 376–408.
Tucker, S. (2004) ‘Bordering on Community: Improvising Women Improvising Women-in-Jazz’. In The Other Side of Nowhere: Jazz, Improvisation, and Communities in Dialogue, ed. Ajay Heble and Daniel Fischlin, 244–67. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Tucker, S. (2007) ‘Telling Performances: Jazz History Remembered and Remade by the Women in the Band’. In Unequal Sisters: A Multicultural Reader in U.S. Women’s History, edited by V. L. Ruiz and E. C. DuBois, 466–77. New York: Routledge.
Tucker, S. (2014) ‘It Don’t Mean a Thing If It Ain’t in the History Books (Reprint, Excerpt of Swing Shift: ‘All-Girl’ Bands of the 1940s)’. In Keeping Time: Readings in Jazz History, 2nd edn, ed. Rob Walser, 111–18. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tucker, S. (2016a) ‘A Conundrum Is a Woman-in-Jazz: Enduring Improvisations on the Categorical Exclusions of Being Included’. In Gender and Identity in Jazz, ed. Wolfram Knauer, 241–62. Hofheim: Wolke.
Tucker, S. (2016b) ‘Jazz History Remix: Black Women from “Enter” to “Center”’. In Issues in African American Music, ed. Portia Maultsby and Mellonee Burnim, 256–69. New York and London: Routledge.
Umney, C., and L. Kretsos (2015) ‘“That’s the Experience”: Passion, Work Precarity and Life Transitions among London Jazz Musicians’. Work and Occupations 42/3: 313–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/0730888415573634 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0730888415573634
UK Music (2021) Let the Music Play: Save our Summer. Public report. January 2021.
UN (2020) Shared Responsibility, Global Solidarity: Responding to the Socio-economic Impacts of COVID-19. https://unsdg.un.org/sites/default/files/2020-03/SG-Report-Socio-Economic-Impact-of-Covid19.pdf
Wall, T., and S. Barber (2012) ‘The Collective Organisation of Contemporary Jazz Musicians’. Jazz Research Journal 5/2: 89–112. https://doi.org/10.1558/jazz.v5i1-2.89 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1558/jazz.v5i1-2.89
Wehr-Flowers, E. (2006) ‘Differences between Male and Female Students’ Confidence, Anxiety and Attitude toward Learning Jazz Improvisation’. Journal of Research in Music Education 54/4: 337–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/002242940605400406 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002242940605400406
Wilèn, N. (2020) ‘What is the Added Value of Male Peacekeepers?’, in Egmont Africa Policy Brief, 29. Brussels: Egmont Institute.
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.