Responsible Muslims and Normalizing Islam

Dutch Muslims and the Politics of Responsibility

Authors

  • Martijn de Koning Radboud University Nijmegen

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/imre.19338

Keywords:

government by community, responsibilization, representation, the Netherlands, unruly subjects, talking back

Abstract

In this article, I take up the “Muslim Question” in relation to neoliberalism and the Dutch government through a community approach focusing on the responsibilization of citizens. Based on fieldwork that I have conducted over the last 15 years, I will argue that, in order to understand the Muslim Question, we have to explore how Muslims respond to the “neo-liberal Muslim Question.” I will explore how the paradoxes and tensions that co-constitute the neoliberal Muslim Question, create opportunities for some Muslims to be able to find, then enlarge and navigate a space for themselves as responsible subjects within a particular framework which also, simultaneously, targets them as potentially unruly subjects. In doing so I show how Muslims engage with the neoliberal governance of themselves and demonstrate how their approach is informed, shaped, enabled  and challenged by the racial neo-liberal discourse of the Muslim Question.

References

Ajouaou, Mohamed. 2011. “Islam in Nederland - Verantwoordelijkheid van de geestelijk leiders.” In Islam in Nederland - Theologische bijdragen in tijden van secularisering, edited by Mohamed Ajouaou, Erik Borgman and Pim Valkenberg, 121–153. Amsterdam: Boom.

Allan, Machteld. 2010. “Nederland en “zijne eigene Islâmquaestie”—Een eeuw geleden speelden dezelfde misverstanden als nu.” De Groene Amsterdammer 46.

Althusser, Louis. 1971. Lenin and Philosophy and other Essays. London: Monthly Review Press.

Bracke, Sarah. 2011. “Subjects of Debate: Secular and Sexual Exceptionalism, and Muslim Women in the Netherlands.” Feminist Review 98(1): 28–46. https://doi.org/10.1057/fr.2011.5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/fr.2011.5

Brown, Wendy. 2005. Edgework. Critical Essays on Knowledge and Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Butter, Ewoud, and Roemer van Oordt. 2017. Zuilen in de polder. Een verkenning van de institutionalisering van islam in Nederland. Vol. 11–465. The Hague: Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid.

de Koning, Martijn. 2008. Zoeken naar een “zuivere” islam—Geloofsbeleving en identiteitsvorming van jonge Marokkaans Nederlandse moslims . Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.

———. 2019. “”No, I”m Not a Salafist”—Salafism, Secularism, and Securitization in the Netherlands.” In Political Muslims. Understanding Youth Resistance in a Global Context, edited by Tahrir Abbas and Sadek Hamid, 75–98. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv14h55z.7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv14h55z.7

———. 2020a. “From Turks and Renegades to Citizens and Radicals: The Historical Trajectories of “Good” and “Bad” Muslims in the Netherlands.” Trajecta. Religion, Culture and Society in the Low Countries 29(1): 3–26. https://doi.org/10.5117/TRA2020.1.001.DEKO DOI: https://doi.org/10.5117/TRA2020.1.001.DEKO

———. 2020b. “The Racialization of Danger: Patterns and Ambiguities in the Relation Between Islam, Security and Secularism in the Netherlands.” Patterns

of Prejudice 54(1-2): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322x.2019.1705011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322X.2019.1705011

De Koning, Martijn, Carmen Becker, and Ineke Roex. 2020. Islamic Militant Activism

in Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany—“Islands in a Sea of Disbelief.” London: Palgrave. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42207-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42207-3

De Zwart, Frank, and Caelesta Poppelaars. 2007. “Redistribution and Ethnic Diversity in the Netherlands. Accommodation, Denial and Replacement.” Acta

Sociologica 50(4): 387–399. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001699307083980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0001699307083980

Demmers, Jolle, and Sameer S. Mehendale. 2010. “Neoliberal Xenophobia: The Dutch Case.” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 35(1): 53–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/030437541003500103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/030437541003500103

El-Amraoui, A.F. and Benjamin Ducol. 2019. “Family-Oriented P/CVE Programs: Overview, Challenges and Future Directions.” Journal for Deradicalisation (20): 190–231.

Fadil, Nadia, Martijn De Koning, and Francesco Ragazzi. 2019. “Introduction. Radicalization: Tracing the Trajectory of an “Empty Signifier” in the Low Lands.” In Radicalization in Belgium and the Netherlands. Critical Perspectives on Violence and Security, edited by Nadia Fadil, Francesco Ragazzi, and Martijn de Koning, 3–29. London: I.B. Tauris. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781788316187.0007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781788316187.0007

Fassin, Didier. 2011. “Racialization - How to do Races with Bodies.” In A Companion to the Anthropology of the Body and Embodiment, edited by Frances E. Mascia-Lees. 419–434. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444340488.ch24 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444340488.ch24

Goldberg, David Theo. 2009. The Threat of Race: Reflections on Racial Neoliberalism. Malden: John Wiley & Sons. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444304695

Hooks, Bell. 1986. “Talking Back.” Discourse 8: 123–128. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44000276.

———. 1989. Talking back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black. Boston, MA: South End Press.

Issar, Siddhant. 2021. “Listening to Black Lives Matter: Racial Capitalism and the Critique of Neoliberalism.” Contemporary Political Theory 20(1): 48–71. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41296-020-00399-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41296-020-00399-0

Klarenbeek, Lea M., and Marjukka Weide. 2020. “The Participation Paradox: Demand for and Fear of Immigrant Participation.” Critical Policy Studies 14(2): 14–232. https://doi.org/10.1080/19460171.2019.1569540. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19460171.2019.1569540

Kortmann, Matthias. 2012. “Religious Governance and Integration Policies in Germany and the Netherlands: The Impact on the Self-Portrayal and Strategies of Muslim Organizations.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 10(3): 299–318. https://10.1080/15562948.2012.693038. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2012.693038

Lems, Johanna M. 2020. “Staying Silent or Speaking Up: Reactions to Racialization Affecting Muslims in Madrid.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 44(7): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2020.1779949. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2020.1779949

Martina, Egbert Alejandro, and Patricia Schor. 2015. “White Order: Racialization of Public Space in the Netherlands.” Dedalus–Revista Portuguesa De Literatura Comparada 19: 161–88.

McFate, Montgomery. 2019. “Useful Knowledge: Snouck Hurgronje and Islamic Insurgency in Aceh.” Orbis 63(3): 416–439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orbis. 2019.05.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orbis.2019.05.005

Melamed, Jodi. 2006. “The Spirit of Neoliberalism: From Racial Liberalism to Neoliberal Multiculturalism.” Social Text 24(4 (89)): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1215/01642472-2006-009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/01642472-2006-009

Oudenampsen, Merijn. 2020. The Rise of the Dutch New Right: An Intellectual History of the Rightward Shift in Dutch Politics. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429452604 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429452604

Penninx, Rinus, and Marlou Schrover. 2001. Bastion of bindmiddel? De organisatie van migranten in een lange-termijn perspectief. Den Haag: NWO.

Ragazzi, Francesco. 2016. “Suspect Community or Suspect Category? The Impact of Counter-Terrorism as “Policed Multiculturalism.”” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42(5): 724–741. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183x.2015.1121807. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1121807

Ragazzi, Francesco, and Lili-Anne De Jongh. 2019. “Countering Radicalization: Hijacking Trust? Dilemmas of Street-Level Bureaucrats in The Netherlands.” In Radicalization in Belgium and the Netherlands. Critical Perspectives on Violence and Security, edited by Nadia Fadil, Francesco Ragazzi, and Martijn de Koning, 147–167. London: I.B. Tauris. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781788316187.ch-006

Rath, Jan, Rinus Penninx, Kees Groenendijk, and Astrid Meyer. 2001. Western Europe and its Islam: The Social Reaction to the Institutionalization of a “New” Religion in the Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004397859 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004397859

Rijkschroeff, Rally, and Jan Willem Duyvendak. 2004. “De omstreden betekenis van zelforganisaties.” Sociologische Gids 51(1): 18–35. https://doi.org/10.1347/sogi.51.1.18.30374 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1347/sogi.51.1.18.30374

Roex, Ineke, and Floris Vermeulen. 2019. “Preemptive Measures Against Radicalization and Local Partnerships in Antwerp.” In Radicalization in Belgium and the Netherlands. Critical Perspectives on Violence and Security, edited by Nadia Fadil, Francesco Ragazzi, and Martijn de Koning, 131–145. London: IB Tauris. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781788316187.ch-005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781788316187.ch-005

Rose, Nikolas. 1996. “The Death of the Social? Re-Figuring the Territory of Government.” Economy and Society 25(3): 327–356. https://doi.org/10.1080/03085149600000018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03085149600000018

Schrover, Marlou. 2010. “Pillarization, Multiculturalism and Cultural Freezing. Dutch Migration History and the Enforcement of Essentialist Edeas.” BMGN-Low Countries Historical Review 125(2-3): 329–354. https://doi.org/10.18352/bmgn-lchr.7124 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18352/bmgn-lchr.7124

Shanaah, Sadi. 2019. “What Motivates Muslims to Engage in Counterextremism? The Role of Identity, Efficacy, Emotions, and Morality.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 44(9):1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2019.1586354. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2019.1586354

Sheth, Falguni A. 2009. Toward a Political Philosophy of Race Albany: Suny Press.

Sliwinski, Krzysztof Feliks. 2013. “Counter-Terrorism – A Comprehensive Approach. Social Mobilisation and “Civilianisation” of Security: The Case of the United Kingdom.” European Security 22(3): 288–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/09662839.2011.584308. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09662839.2011.584308

Snouck Hurgronje, Christiaan. 1911. Nederland en de Islâm. Leiden: Brill.

Van Den Brandt, Nella. 2019. ““The Muslim Question” and Muslim Women Talking Back.” Journal of Muslims in Europe 8(3): 286–312. https://doi.org/10.1163/22117954-12341404. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22117954-12341404

Van der Valk, Ineke. 1996. Van migratie naar burgerschap: twintig jaar Komitee Marokkaanse Arbeiders in Nederland. Amsterdam: Instituut voor Publiek en Politiek.

van der Veer, Peter. 2001. “Nederland en de Islam.” Amsterdams Sociologisch Tijdschrift 28(4): 513–524.

Van Es, Margaretha. 2018. “Muslims Denouncing Violent Extremism.” Journal of Muslims in Europe 7(2): 146–166. https://doi.org/10.1163/22117954-12341374. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22117954-12341374

Van Es, Margaretha. 2019. “The Promise of the Social Contract: Muslim Perspectives on the Culturalization of Citizenship and the Demand to Denounce Violent Extremism.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 42(16): 141–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2019.1600710. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2019.1600710

Van Houdt, Friso, and Willem Schinkel. 2014. “Crime, Citizenship and Community: Neoliberal Communitarian Images of Governmentality.” The Sociological Review 62(1): 47–67. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954x.12115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.12115

Van Houdt, Friso, Semin Suvarierol, and Willem Schinkel. 2011. “Neoliberal Communitarian Citizenship: Current Trends Towards “Earned Citizenship” in the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands.” International Sociology 26(3): 408–432. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268580910393041. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0268580910393041

Vellenga, Sipco, and Gerard Wiegers. 2013. “Polarization or Bridging? Responses of Muslim and Non-Muslim Organizations to Criticism of Islam in the Netherlands.” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 24(1): 111–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2013.742220. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2013.742220

Yanow, Dvora, Marleen Van Der Haar, and Karlijn Völke. 2016. “Troubled Taxonomies and the Calculating State: Everyday Categorizing and “Race-Ethnicity”— The Netherlands Case.” The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics 1(2): 187–226. https://doi.org/10.1017/rep.2016.7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/rep.2016.7

Published

2022-05-05

How to Cite

de Koning, M. (2022). Responsible Muslims and Normalizing Islam: Dutch Muslims and the Politics of Responsibility. Implicit Religion, 23(4), 313–335. https://doi.org/10.1558/imre.19338

Issue

Section

Articles