Implicit Religion <p>This international journal offers a platform for scholarship that challenges the traditional boundary between religion and non-religion and the tacit assumptions underlying this distinction. It invites contributions from a critical perspective on various cultural formations that are usually excluded from religion by the gatekeeping practices of the general public, practitioners, the law, and even some scholars of religion.&nbsp;</p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Implicit Religion 1463-9955 Responsible Muslims and Normalizing Islam <div>In this article, I take up the “Muslim Question” in relation to neoliberalism and the Dutch government through a community approach focusing on the responsibilization of citizens. Based on fieldwork that I have conducted over the last 15 years, I will argue that, in order to understand the Muslim Question, we have to explore how Muslims respond to the “neo-liberal Muslim Question.” I will explore how the paradoxes and tensions that co-constitute the neoliberal Muslim Question, create opportunities for some Muslims to be able to find, then enlarge and navigate a space for themselves as responsible subjects within a particular framework which also, simultaneously, targets them as potentially unruly subjects. In doing so I show how Muslims engage with the neoliberal governance of themselves and demonstrate how their approach is informed, shaped, enabled and challenged by the racial neo-liberal discourse of the Muslim Question.</div> Martijn de Koning Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 23 4 313 335 10.1558/imre.19338 Covering the Face <p>The Dutch ban on face-veiling is a strong instantiation of the gendered racialization of Muslims in Europe. Racialization as a relation of power, with some in the position to categorize and impose an identity on others, produces and naturalizes difference. To justify the ban, politicians signified face-veiling as gendered oppression, as a security threat and as an obstacle to integration, bringing together ethical positions with affective and aesthetic sensibilities. The largely unheard narratives of face-veiling women, in contrast, highlighted the positive religious value of face-veiling and point to the state’s infringement on their freedom of religion, expression, and movement. As face-veiling women are simultaneously defined as victims to be saved and as threat to be removed from the public, their racialization is ambivalent. It is also multilayered, with debates on faceveiling not only producing a divide between Muslims and non-Muslims, but with some Muslims also involved in the racialization of other Muslims.</p> Annelies Moors Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 23 4 337 362 10.1558/imre.20627 Normalization through Religious Representation <p>This article examines a secular liberal state’s demand for religious representation of minorities, exploring how one heterodox Muslim community has responded to this demand in a context of intense public scrutiny. In order to gain recognition and rights as a legitimate religious community in modern Lebanon, Druze leaders created a new figurehead to look something like the head of a Christian church. Their project offers a striking case of how a secular democracy can end up generating the “religion” it expects to find; how the politics of religious representation can transform Muslim communities that lack a church-like structure; how ambiguous the notion of “religious representation” turns out to be when these Muslims try to do it from scratch; and how much harder heterodox Muslims often have to work to gain recognition within a world religions paradigm.</p> Alexander Henley Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 23 4 363 387 10.1558/imre.20626 Six or Eleven Theses on “Islamic” and “Christian” Terrorism in America <p>The term “Christian terrorism” began to appear in U.S. media narratives following a shooting outside of a Planned Parenthood clinic in 2015. Reflecting on a blog post I wrote from this time nearly six-years later, where I had proposed six theses on “Islamic” versus “Christian” terrorism in America, I consider how this rhetoric has developed in the interim. Adding five additional theses, I argue that the relative absence of terror attacks on U.S. soil throughout the Trump era, and the preoccupation with a variety of culture wars issues, has complicated the ways in which Muslims/Islam are constructed in the contemporary United States. I also consider the “Muslim question” and how it relates to Marx’s “On the Jewish Question.” Despite certain parallels between these issues, I propose that the “question” for Western Muslims today is less about achieving basic rights as it is a battle over the definition of Islam itself.</p> Matt Sheedy Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 23 4 389 410 10.1558/imre.19918 Navigating Politics of Identification—A Response Paula Schrode Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 23 4 411 419 10.1558/imre.22769 The “Muslim Question” <div>The introduction to the special issue The “Muslim Question”: The Micropolitics of Normalizing Islam and Muslims outlines three dynamics at play in all four contributions: normalization, classification and micropolitics. Starting with Michel Foucault and his notion of normalization, I argue that Muslims are classified and problematized in specific ways depending on the particular socio-historical context. Every problem and every classification depends on an idea of the “normal” or on norms. These norms central to the dynamics of normalization are reproduced through practices in everyday life. From this perspective, norm-reproducing micropo- litics shapes the social fabric of interaction.</div> Carmen Becker Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 23 4 305 311 10.1558/imre.22543