Chaplains, their History and the Theology of R. A. Lambourne
A Response to Elements of the Scottish NHS Policy on Spirituality
Keywords:theology, spirituality, generic chaplain, sacrament, sacrament of healing, sacrament of mercy, pastoral care, pastoral counselling, mental health, mental health chaplaincy, religion, supervision, human rights, recovery, advocacy, medicine, psychiatry
The author considers the tension between the psychiatric patient’s need for the full healing resources of a given religion and the need for the NHS to give equal attention to everyone. This is considered for one particular religion – Christianity – because that is the one with which the author is most familiar. However, the point applies to other world religions too. Recent developments in chaplaincy in the NHS in Scotland are discussed: “generic chaplaincy”, a new definition of spirituality and increased supervision of chaplains. The historical and theological background is considered and use is made of Tony Walter’s models of different ways of delivering chaplaincy in hospital. To elucidate the healing resources of Christianity, work on the interface between medicine and theology completed by R. A. Lambourne is brought in. Conclusions are drawn for mental health chaplaincy.
Campbell, A. (1984) Moderated Love: Towards a Theology of Professional Care. London: SPCK.
Carey, L.B., and R. Davoren (2008) “Interfaith Pastoral Care and the Role of the Health Care Chaplain”. Scottish Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy 11(1): 21–32. https://doi.org/10.1558/hscc.v11i1.21
Casey, P. (2013) “I’m Spiritual but Not Religious: Implications for Research and Practice”. In Spirituality, Theology and Mental Health: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, ed. C. C. H. Cook, 20–39. London: SCM Press.
Catholic Church (1994) Catechism of the Catholic Church. London: Chapman.
Congar, Y. (1985) Lay People in the Church: a Study for a Theology of the Laity. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 2nd edn, trans. D. Attwater.
Cranmer, F. (2015) “Chaplaincy and the Law”. In C. Swift, M. Cobb and A. Todd, A Handbook of Chaplaincy Studies: Understanding Spiritual Care in Public Places, 79–95. Surrey: Ashgate.
Department of Health (2003) N.H.S. Chaplaincy: Meeting the Religious and Spiritual Needs of Patients and Staff. http://www.nhs-chaplaincy-sritualcare.org.uk/dh_MeetingtheReligiousNeeds2003.pdf. Last accessed 19 January 2016.
Due, N. (1999) “Spirituality, Transcendence and Pastoral Care”. Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy 2(1): 25–29.
Gwyn, D. (2004) “The Early Quaker Lamb’s War: Secularisation and the Death of Tragedy in Early Modern England”. In P. Dandelion et al., Towards Tragedy Reclaiming Hope: Theology and Sociology in Conversation. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Jay, C. (2013) “What is Spiritual Care?” In Spirituality, Theology and Mental Health, Multidisciplinary Perspectives, ed. C. C. H. Cook. London: SCM Press.
Lambourne, R. A. (1961) “The Cup of Cold Water and the Cup of Blessing”. In R. Lambourne (1983) Explorations in Health and Salvation: a Selection of Papers by Robert Lambourne, ed. Michael Wilson, 44–48. Birmingham: Institute for the Study of Worship and Religious Architecture, University of Birmingham.
—(1965) “Hospital Salt, Theological Savour and True Humanism”. In R. Lambourne (1983) Explorations in Health and Salvation: a Selection of Papers by Robert Lambourne, ed. Michael Wilson, 49–63. Birmingham: Institute for the Study of Worship and Religious Architecture, University of Birmingham.
—(1969) “Counselling for Narcissus or Counselling for Christ”. In R. Lambourne (1983) Explorations in Health and Salvation: a Selection of Papers by Robert Lambourne, ed. Michael Wilson, 135–61. Birmingham: Institute for the Study of Worship and Religious Architecture, University of Birmingham.
—(1970) “With Love to the USA”. In Religion and Medicine; a Discussion, ed. M. Melinsky, 132–45. London: SCM Press.
—(1971) “Objections to a National Pastoral Organisation”. Contact – Journal of the Scottish Pastoral Association 35: 24–31.
—(1983) Explorations in Health and Salvation: a Selection of Papers by Robert Lambourne, ed. Michael Wilson. Birmingham: Institute for the Study of Worship and Religious Architecture, University of Birmingham.
—(1987) Community Church and Healing: A Study of Some Corporate Aspects of the Church’s Ministry to the Sick, 2nd Edn. London: Arthur James.
Lyall, D. (2001) “Spiritual Institutions?” In Orchard, H. (ed.) Spirituality in Healthcare Contexts. London & Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley.
—(2010) “Pastoral Care and Counselling in Scotland since 1950”. Paper given at the Theology and Therapy Conference, New College, Edinburgh. http://www.theologyandtherapy.div.ed.ac.uk/2010-conference.html. Last accessed 21 January 2016.
Meyer, B. (1995) “Practice Makes Perfect: Christian Education Viewed as Initiation into Christianity as a Practice”. PhD Thesis, University of Syracuse, New York, USA.
Mowat, H., J. Swinton et al. (2007) What Do Chaplains Do?: the Role of the Chaplain in Meeting the Spiritual Needs of Patients, 2nd edn. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen.
NHS Grampian (2008) Record of the Churches and Chaplaincy Conference held at Scottish Churches’ House, Dunblane on 22nd January 2008. www.nhsgrampian.org/grampianfoi/files/churches_and_chaplaincy_080122.pdf. Last accessed 14 January 2016.
Nolan, S. (2013) “Re-evaluating Chaplaincy: To Be or Not to Be”. Journal of Heath and Social Care Chaplaincy 1(1): 49–60.
Oden, T. (1972) The Intensive Group Experience: the New Pietism. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press.
Paterson, M. (2015) “Supervision, Support and Safe Practice”. In C. Swift, M. Cobb and A. Todd, A Handbook of Chaplaincy Studies: Understanding Spiritual Care in Public Places, 149–59. Surrey: Ashgate.
Paterson, M., and E. Kelly (2013) “Values-Based Reflective Practice”. Practical Theology 6(1): 51–67. https://doi.org/10.1179/pra.6.1.t815l2592549h478
Pattison, S. (2001) “Dumbing Down the Spirit”. In Spirituality in Healthcare Contexts, ed. H. Orchard, 33–46. London & Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley.
Pilgrim, D., and A. McCranie (2013) Recovery and Mental Health: a Critical and Sociological Account. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-35889-9
Philipson, I. (1993) On the Shoulders of Women: the Feminisation of Psychotherapy. London: Guildford Press.
Ryan, B. (2015) A Very Modern Ministry: Chaplaincy in the UK. London: Theos. http://www.theosthinktank.co.uk/files/files/Modern%20Ministry%20combined.pdf. Last accessed 19 January 2016.
Scottish Executive Health Department Directorate of Nursing (2002) Spiritual Care in NHS Scotland. Edinburgh: Department of Health. (Known as HDL), 76.
Scottish Independent Advocacy Alliance (2008) Principles and Standards for Guidance in Mental Health Advocacy. Edinburgh: Scottish Independent Advocacy Alliance.
Scottish NHS Patients and Quality Division (2008) “Guidance on Spiritual Care and Chaplaincy in the NHS in Scotland”. Annex A of Scottish Government (2009) Spiritual Care and Chaplaincy. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
Swift, C. (2014) Hospital Chaplaincy in the Twenty-First Century: the Crisis in Spiritual Care in the NHS. Surrey: Ashgate.
Swift, C. et al. (2015) NHS Chaplaincy Guidelines 2015: Promoting Excellence in Pastoral, Spiritual and Religious Care. Leeds: NHS England.
Swinton, J. (2000) Resurrecting the Person: Friendship and Care of People with Mental Health Problems. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
Taylor, C. (2007) A Secular Age. Massachusetts & London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Walter, T. (1997) “The Ideology and Organisation of Spiritual Care: Three approaches”. Palliative Medicine 11(1): 21–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/026921639701100103
Woolf Commission (2015) Living with Difference: a Report on Religion and Belief in Public Life. www.corab.org.uk. Last accessed 12 February 2016.
Woodhead, L. (2015) “Foreword” to C. Swift, M. Cobb and A. Todd, A Handbook of Chaplaincy Studies: Understanding Spiritual Care in Public Places, xvii–xxii. Surrey: Ashgate.