Recognizing and Responding to the Spiritual Needs of Adults from Minority Religious Groups in Acute, Chronic and Palliative UK Healthcare Contexts
An Explorative Review
The article reports on the findings of a systematised literature review (SLR) of how the spiritual needs of adults from minority religious groups are recognized and responded to in UK healthcare contexts. Implications for the training and practice of healthcare professionals, including chaplains, is considered. Among conclusions: healthcare staff would benefit from on-going training concerning delivering quality individualized spiritual care to people from minority religious groups. For the SLR databases, bibliographies, citations, journals and grey literature were searched. Inclusion criteria were: primary research; in English; published July 2007-September 2017; articles, books and unpublished reports; adults; acute, chronic and palliative healthcare, UK articles and contexts. Themes from 18 studies were synthesized within seven categories of spiritual need, showing a range from inadequate to excellent care being offered to Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus in six of these.
Alhomoud, F., S. Dhillon, Z. Aslanpour and F. Smith (2015) “South Asian and Middle Eastern Patients’ Perspectives on Medicine-related Problems in the United Kingdom”. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 37(4): 607–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-015-0103-6
Arksey, H., and L. O’Malley (2005) “Scoping Studies: Towards a Methodological Framework”. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory and Practice 8(1): 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616
Barrow, L. (2004) “Ramadan and Diabetes: Helping to Ensure Safe Fasting”. Journal of Diabetes Nursing 8: 227–31.
Bettany, J., and R. McSherry (2016) How To Do a Systematic Literature Review in Nursing: A Step-By-Step Guide. London: Oxford University Press.
British Religion in Numbers (2016) “2001 Census”. Online: http://www.brin.ac.uk/figures/census-2001-tables/ (accessed 13 May 2018).
Calanzani, N., J. Koffman and I. J. Higginson (2013) Palliative and End of Life Care for Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) Groups in the UK. London: Public Health England, King’s College London, Marie Curie Cancer Care.
Carey, L. B., R. P. Davoren (2008) “Inter-faith Pastoral Care and Role of the Health Care Chaplain”. Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy 11(1): 21–32.
Cowan, M. M. (2014) “The Lived Experiences of the Sikh Population of South East England When Caring for a Dying Relative at Home”. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 20(4): 179–86. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2014.20.4.179
Elkan, R., M. Avis, K. Cox, E. Wilson, S. Patel, S. Miller, N. Deepak, C. Edwards, S. Staniszewska and J. Kai (2007) “The Reported Views and Experiences of Cancer Service Users from Minority Ethnic Groups: A Critical Review of the Literature”. European Journal of Cancer Care 16(2): 109–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2354.2006.00726.x
Ethnicity and Health (Journal). Online: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ceth20/current (accessed 13 May 2018).
Evans, N., A. Menaca, E. V. W. Andrew, J. Koffman, R. Harding, I. J. Higginson, R. Pool and M. Gysels (2012) “Systematic Review of the Primary Research on Minority Ethnic Groups and End-of-life Care from the United Kingdom”. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 43(2): 261–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.04.012
Fineout-Overholt, E., B. M. Melnyk, S. B. Stillwell and K. M. Williamson (2010) “5. Critical Appraisal of the Evidence: Part I”. The American Journal of Nursing 110(9): 41–48. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000388264.49427.f9
Flannelly, K. J., K. Galek, J. Bucchino and A. Vane (2006) “The Relative Prevalence of Various Spiritual Needs”. Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy 9(2): 25–30.
Frearson, S., J. Henderson, B. Raval, C. Daniels, G. Burke and J. Koffman (2013) “End-of-life Care for the British Asian Hindu Community: Preferences and Solutions”. End of Life Journal 3(3): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1136/eoljnl-03-03.3
Galek, K., K. J. Flannelly, A. Vane and R. M. Galek (2005) “Assessing a Patient’s Spiritual Needs: A Comprehensive Instrument”. Holistic Nursing Practice 19(2): 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004650-200503000-00006
Garrett, C. R., L. L. Gask, R. Hays, A. Cherrington, C. Bundy, C. Dickens, W. Waheed and P. A. Coventry (2012) “Accessing Primary Health Care: A Meta-ethnography of the Experiences of British South Asian Patients with Diabetes, Coronary Heart Disease or a Mental Health Problem”. Chronic Illness 8(2): 135–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742395312441631
Godin, K., J. Stapelton, S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. M. Hanning and S. T. Leatherdale (2015) “Applying Systematic Review Search Methods to the Grey Literature: A Case Study Examining Guidelines for School-based Breakfast Programs in Canada”. Systematic Reviews 4(1): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-015-0125-0
Gordon, T., E. Kelly and D. Mitchell (2011) Spiritual Care for Healthcare Professionals. London and New York: Radcliffe.
Grace, C., R. Begum, S. Subhani, P. Kopelman and T. Greenhalgh (2008) “Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in British Bangladeshis: Qualitative Study of Community, Religious, and Professional Perspectives”. BMJ 337 (November): a1931–a1931. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a1931
Hamilton, M., and Z. Essat (2008) “Minority Ethnic Users’ Experiences and Expectations of Nursing Care”. Journal of Research in Nursing 13(2): 111–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987108088638
Hipwell, A., A. Turner, J. Barlow and J. Singh (2015) “‘There are several different castes, you know?’ South Asian Tutors’ Experiences of Delivering a Self-management Programme to Punjabi Sikhs”. Diversity and Equality in Health and Care 12(2): 66–76. https://doi.org/10.21767/2049-5471.100033
Kai, J., J. Beavan, C. Faull, L. Dodson, P. Gill and A. Beighton (2007) “Professional Uncertainty and Disempowerment Responding to Ethnic Diversity in Health Care: A Qualitative Study”. PLoS Medicine 4(11): 1766–775. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040323
Kelly, E. (2002) “Preparation for Providing Spiritual Care”. Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy 5(2): 11–15.
Markham, S., Z. Islam and C. Faull (2014) “I never knew that! Why Do People from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic Groups in Leicester Access Hospice Services Less than Other Groups? A Discussion with Community Groups”. Diversity and Equality in Health and Care 11(3–4): 237–45. https://doi.org/10.21767/2049-5471.100016
McClimens, A., J. Brewster and R. Lewis (2014) “Recognising and Respecting Patients’ Cultural Diversity”. Nursing Standard 28(28): 45–52. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns2014.03.28.28.45.e8148
Mir, G., and A. Sheikh (2010) “‘Fasting and prayer don’t concern the doctors they don’t even know what it is’: Communication, Decision-making and Perceived Social Relations of Pakistani Muslim Patients with Long-term Illnesses”. Ethnicity and Health 15(4): 327–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557851003624273
Mol, H. (1978) Identity and the Sacred: A Sketch for a New Socio-scientific Theory of Religion. New York: Blackwell.
Mowat, H. (2008) ‘The Potential for the Efficacy of Healthcare Chaplaincy and Spiritual Care Provision in the NHS (UK): A Scoping Review of Recent Research’. NHS Yorkshire and the Humber.
National Records of Scotland (2013) Online: http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/rel2asbtable7.pdf (accessed 13 May 2018).
NHS Education for Scotland (2009) Spiritual Care Matters. An Introductory Resource for All NHS Scotland Staff’: 1–64. An Introductory Resource for NHS Scotland Staff.
Ninis: Northern Ireland Census (2011) “Religion”. Online: http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/public/census2011analysis/religion/religionInfographic.pdf (accessed 13 May 2018).
Office for National Statistics/Nomis, Minority Religious Groups (2011) Online: https://tinyurl.com/2011-2012-12-11 (accessed 13 May 2018).
Office for National Statistics/Nomis, Other Religion (2011) (File QS210EW). Online: https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/ (accessed 13 May 2018).
Patel, N. R., C. Chew-Graham, C. Brundy, A. Kennedy, C. Blickem, D. Reeves and A. Rogers (2014) “Having Diabetes and Having to Fast: A Qualitative Study of British Muslims with Diabetes”. Health Expectations 18(5): 1698–1708. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12163
Patel, N. R., C. Chew-Graham, C. Brundy, A. Kennedy, C. Blickem and D. Reeves (2015) “Illness Beliefs and the Sociocultural Context of Diabetes Self-management in British South Asians: A Mixed Methods Study”. BMC Family Practice 16(1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-015-0269-y
Polit, D. F., and C. T. Beck (2014) Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, 8th edn. Philadelphia – Baltimore – New York – London – Buenos Aires – Hong Kong – Sydney – Tokyo: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Redman, J., G. M. Awoko Higginbottom and M. T. Massey (2008) “Critical Review of Literature on Ethnicity and Health in Relation to Cancer and Palliative Care in the United Kingdom”. Diversity in Health and Social Care 5: 137–50.
Ross, L., and J. Austin (2015) “Spiritual Needs and Spiritual Support Preferences of People with End-stage Heart Failure and their Carers: Implications for Nurse Managers”. Journal of Nursing Management 23(1): 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12087
Royal College of Nursing (2011) Spirituality in Nursing Care, a Pocket Guide. Online: https://www.rcn.org.uk/professional-development/publications/pub-003887 (accessed 13 May 2018).
Savage, D. (2015) “‘All Faiths and None?’ An Audit of Chaplains’ Visits”. HSCC 1: 63–69. https://doi.org/10.1558/hscc.v3i1.26550
United Kingdom Board of Healthcare Chaplains (UKBHC) (2009) Spiritual and Religious Care Capabilities and Competencies for Healthcare Chaplains. Online: http://www.ukbhc.org.uk/publications/standards (accessed 13 May 2018).
Venkatasalu, M. R., A. Arthur and J. Seymour (2013) “Talking about End-of-life Care: the Perspectives of Older South Asians Living in East London”. Journal of Research in Nursing 18(5): 394–406. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987113490712
Venkatasalu, M. R., A. Arthur and J. Seymour (2014) “Dying at Home: A Qualitative Study of the Perspectives of Older South Asians Living in the United Kingdom”. Palliative Medicine 28(3): 264–72. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216313506765
Venkatasalu, M. R. (2017) “Let Him Not be Alone: Perspectives of Older British South Asian Minority Ethnic Patients on Dying in Acute Hospitals”. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 23(9): 432–39. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2017.23.9.432
Wilkinson, S., K. Lane and A. Stocki (2010) A Survey of the Health Needs of Black and Minority Ethnic Groups in Norfolk. NHS Norfolk: University of East Anglia.
Worth, A., T. Irshad, R. Bhopal, J. Usher, B. Usher, D. Brown, J. Lawton, E. Grant, S. Murray, M. Kendall, J. Adam, R. Gardee and A. Sheikh (2009) “Vulnerability and Access to Care for South Asian Sikh and Muslim Patients with Life Limiting Illness in Scotland: Prospective Longitudinal Qualitative Study”. BMJ 338 (February): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b183