The variables for drawing up the profile of dictionary users
Keywords:Dictionary, Dictionary user, Segmentation, Lexicography, User profile
Dictionary users should be the main considerations in creating dictionaries. A mistake in identifying the users can make a dictionary to be simply a display without much benefit. Nevertheless, only a small handful of references have discussed the variables to be considered in determining the dictionary user profiles. Consequently, a more concise and updated reference is needed to draw up a more thorough profile of dictionary users. This article starts with reviews of the references on how to determine the profiles of dictionary users, proposed by Bergenholtz and Tarp (Manual of specialised dictionaries, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1995), Atkins and Varantola (in: Atkins (ed) Lexicographica Series Maior 88: using dictionaries, Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tu¨bingen, 1998), Denisov (in: Hartmann (ed) Lexicography: critical concepts, Routledge, London, 2003), Tarp (Lexikos 14:222–252, 2004), Bergenholtz and Nielsen (Terminology 12(2):281–303, 2006) and, Tarp (Lexicography in the borderland between knowledge and non-knowledge: general lexicographical theory with particular focus on learner’s lexicography, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2008). A theory on market segmentation process from Kotler and Keller (Marketing management, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2006) is also discussed to widen the perspective on determining the variables for dictionary user profiles. This study has found fourteen variables which are relevant for drawing up the profile of dictionary users.
A dictionary for soap makers. http://www.ccnphawaii.com/glossary.htm.
Anglin, J.M. 1993. Vocabulary development: A morphological analysis. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial 238 (58): 10.
Atkins, B.T.S., and K. Varantola. 1998. Language learners using dictionaries: The final report on the EURALEX/AILA research project on dictionary use. In Lexicographica Series Maior 88: Using dictionaries, ed. B.T.S. Atkins, 21–81. Tu¨bingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Bergenholtz, H., and S. Nielsen. 2006. Subject-field components as integrated parts of LSP dictionaries. Terminology 12 (2): 281–303.
Bergenholtz, H., and S. Tarp. 1995. Manual of specialised dictionaries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Bogaards, P. 1999. Access structures of learner’s dictionaries. In The perfect Learners’ dictionary (?), ed. T. Herbst, and K. Popp, 113–130. Tu¨bingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Bradley, J. 1998. Yanyuwa: Men speak one way, women another. In Language and gender: A reader, ed. J. Coates, 13–20. Oxford: Blackwell.
Chew, K.S. 2005. An investigation of the English language skills used by new entrants in banks in Hong Kong. English for Specific Purposes 24: 423–435.
Dansk-Englesk Ordbog. http://www.ordbogen.com.
de Schryver, G. 2003. Lexicographers’ dreams in the electronic-dictionary age. International Journal of Lexicography 16 (2): 143–199.
Denisov, P.N. 2003. The typology of pedagogical dictionaries. In Lexicography: Critical concepts, ed. R.R.K. Hartmann, 70–89. London: Routledge.
Dictionary for Investors. http://www.investorwords.com.
East, M. 2006. The impact of dictionaries on lexical sophistication and lexical accuracy in tests of L2 writing proficiency: A quantitative analysis. Assessing Writing 11: 179–197.
Epstein, R.B. 2003. Buddhism A to Z. Burlingame, CA: Buddhist Text Translation Society.
Fuertes-Olivera, P.A., and Sandro Nielsen. 2008. Translating politeness in bilingual English-Spanish business correspondence. META 53 (3): 667–678.
Graham, S. 2006. Listening comprehension: The learners’ perspective. System 34: 165–182.
Islamic Dictionary. http://www.muttaqun.com/dictionary3.html.
JobGenie Dictionary of Occupational Titles. http://www.stepfour.com/jobs/.
Kotler, P., and K.L. Keller. 2006. Marketing management, 12th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Landau, S.I. 2001. Dictionaries: The art and craft of lexicography, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Larousse Dictionary of Painters. 1990.
Lewis, R.D. 2006. When cultures collide: Leading across cultures. Boston: Nicholas Brealey.
Nation, I.S.P. 2001. Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nielsen, S., and L. Mourier. 2004. Design of a function-based internet accounting dictionary. dictionary visions. In Research and practice: selected papers from the 12th international symposium on lexicography, Copenhagen.
Nippold, M.A. 1998. Later language development: The school-age and adolescent years, 2nd ed. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Nippold, M.A. 2006. Language development in school-age children, adolescents, and adults. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, ed. K. Brown, 368–373. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 9th ed. 2015.
Oxford Wordpower Dictionary for Arabic-speaking Learners of English. 2005.
Pattanayak, D.P. 1998. Mother tongue: An Indian context. In The native speaker: Multiple perspectives, ed. R. Singh, 124–147. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Report of the English Language Curriculum and Pedagogy Review. http://www.moe.gov.sg/corporate/elcpr-executive-summary.pdf. Accessed Oct 2006.
Tarp, S. 2004. Basic problems of learner’s lexicography. Lexikos 14: 222–252.
Tarp, S. 2008. Lexicography in the borderland between knowledge and non-knowledge: General lexicographical theory with particular focus on learner’s lexicography. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
The United Nations. 2013. Population Facts. www.unpopulation.org. Accessed on 14 Mar 2016.
Webster’s New World Hacker Dictionary. 2006.
Wingate, U. 2002. The effectiveness of different learners dictionaries: an investigation into the use of dictionaries for reading comprehension by intermediate learners of German. In Lexicographica Series Maior 112. Tu¨bingen: Niemeyer.