Peer Assessment of Adolescent Learners’ Writing Performance
Keywords:peer assessment, writing performance, rating scale, assessor, assesse, secondary education, EFL writing
Peer assessment (PA), a process by which students' work (oral or written) is assessed by other students of equal status, has received a lot of attention recently (Assessment Reform Group, 1999, 2002). Using data collected from secondary schools in Cyprus, the current study investigates whether PA can improve the writing skills of adolescent students of English as a foreign language (EFL). The results showed that PA did have a positive impact on students’ writing performance, especially for students who provided peer assessment. The article discusses the important role of PA in the development of students’ writing skills and offers recommendations for the implementation of PA in EFL contexts.
Andrade, H. and Valtcheva, A. (2009) Promoting learning and achievement through self-assessment. Theory Into Practice 48(1): 12-19. DOI:10.1080/00405840802577544
Andrade, H. (2010) Students as the definitive source of formative assessment: Academic self-Assessment and the self-regulation of learning. In H. J. Andrade and G. J. Cizek (eds.) Handbook of Formative Assessment 90–105. New York: Routledge.
Assessment Reform Group (1999) Assessment for Learning: Beyond the Black Box. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, School of Education.
Assessment Reform Group (2002) Assessment for Learning: 10 Principles. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, School of Education.
Bangert-Drowns, R., Kulik, C. L. C., Kulik, J. A. and Morgan, M. (1991) The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Review of Educational Research 61: 213-238.
Barab, S. A., Hay, K. E., Barnett, M. and Squire, K. (2001) Constructing virtual worlds: tracing the historical development of learner practices. Cognition and Instruction 19(1): 47–94.
Beach, R. (1989) Showing students how to assess: Demonstrating techniques for response in the writing conference. In Anson, C. M. (ed) Writing and Response: Theory, Practice, and Research. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English: 127-148.
Behjat, F. and Yamini, M. (2012) Blended learning: A ubiquitous learning environment for reading comprehension. International Journal of English Linguistics 2(1): 97-106. DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v2n1p97
Berg, C. E. (1999) The effects of trained peer response on ESL students' revision types and writing quality. Journal of Second Language Writing 8(3): 215-241. DOI:10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80115-5
Birjandi, P. and Hadidi Tamjid, N. (2011) The role of self-, peer and teacher assessment in promoting Iranian EFL learners’ writing performance. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education: 1-21. DOI:10.1080/02602938.2010.549204
Birkeland, T. S. (1986) Variations of feedback related to teaching paragraph structure to technicians'. Retrieved 10 December 2014 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=752276871&SrchMode=1$sid=3&Fmt=2
Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998) Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan 80: 1-13. DOI: 10.1177/003172171009200119
Black, P. C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. and William, D. (2003) Assessment for Learning: Putting it in Practice. Maidenhead, Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bostock, S. (2006) Student peer-assessment. Retrieved 4 December 2014 from: http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/engageinassessment/Student_peer_assessment_-_Stephen_Bostock.pdf
Boud, D. (1995) Enhancing Learning through Self Assessment. London: Kogan Page.
Boud, D. (2000) Sustainable assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education 22: 151-167. DOI:10.1080/713695728
Brindley, C. and Scoffield, S. (1998) Peer assessment in undergraduate programmes. Teaching in Higher Education 3(1): 79-90. DOI:10.1080/1356215980030106
Cho, K. and MacArthur, C. (2010) Student revision with peer and expert reviewing. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 328-338. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.006
Conrad, S. and Goldstein, L. (1999) ESL student revision after teacher-written comments: Texts, contexts, and individuals. Journal of Second Language Writing 8: 147-149. DOI:10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80126-X
Council of Europe (2001) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cowie, B. (2005) Pupil commentary on assessment for learning. Curriculum Journal, 16(2): 137-151. DOI:10.1080/09585170500135921
Cowie, B. (2009) My teacher and my friends help me learn: student perspectives and experiences of classroom assessment. In D. M. McInerney, G. T. L. Brown and G. A. D. Liem (eds.) Student Perspectives on Assessment: What Students Can Tell us about Assessment for Learning. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 85-105.
Crane, l. and Winterbottom, M. (2008) Plants and photosynthesis: Peer assessment to help students learn. Educational Research 42(4): 150-156. DOI:10.1080/00219266.2008.9656133
Crowley, S. (1998) Composition in the University. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.
Curriculum Development Council (2001) Learning to Learn: Life-long Learning and Whole-person Development. Hong Kong: Curriculum Development Council.
Curriculum Development Council (2004) English Language Education: English Language Curriculum Guide (primary 1-6). Hong Kong: Curriculum Development Council.
Digiovanni, E. and Nagaswami, G. (2001) Online peer review: An alternative to face-to-face. English Language Teaching Journal 55(3): 263-271. DOI: 10.1093/elt/55.3.263
Dochy, F., Segers, M. and Sluijsmans, D. (1999) The use of self-, peer and co-assessment in higher education: A review. Studies in Higher Education 24(3): 331-350. DOI:10.1080/03075079912331379935
Dysthe, O. (2004) The challenges of assessment in a new learning culture. In The 32nd international NERA/NFPF Conference, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Falchikov, N. (1995) Peer feedback marking: development peer assessment. Innovations in Education and Training International 32: 175-87. DOI:10.1080/1355800950320212
Falchikov, N. and Goldfinch, J. (2000) Student peer assessment in higher education: A meta-analysis comparing peer and teacher marks. Review of Educational Research 70(3): 287-322. DOI: 10.3102/00346543070003287
Ferris, D. R. (1995) Student reactions to teacher response in multiple-draft composition classrooms. TESOL Quarterly 29: 33-53.
Gibbs, G. and Simpson, C. (2004) Conditions under which assessment supports students' learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education 1: 3-31.
Gielen, S., Peeters, E., Dochy, F., Onghena, P. and Struyven, K. (2010) Improving the effectiveness of peer feedback for learning. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 304-315. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.007
Gieve, S. (1998) Comments on Dwight Atkinson's “A Critical Approach to Critical Thinking in TESOL”: A Case for Critical Thinking in the English Language ClassroomTESOL Quarterly 32: 123-129. DOI: 10.2307/3587906
Hanrahan, S. and Isaacs, G. (2001) Assessing self- and peer assessment: The students' views. Higher Education Research and Development, 20(1): 53-70. DOI:10.1080/07294360123776
Harlen, W. (2007) Holding up a mirror to classroom practice. Primary Science Review 100: 29–31.
Harris, L. R. and Brown, G. T. L. (2013) Opportunities and obstacles to consider when using peer- and self-assessment to improve student learning: Case studies into teachers' implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education 36: 101-111. DOI:10.1016/j.tate.2013.07.008
Harrison, C. and Harlen, W. (2006) Children’s self– and peer–assessment. In Harlen, W. (ed.) ASE Guide to Primary Science Education. Hatfield: Association for Science Education, 183-190.
Humphreys, P., Greenan, K. and Mcllveen, H. (1997) Development work-based transferable skills in a university environment. Journal of European Industrial Training 21(2): 63-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090599710161739
Hyland, F. (2000) ESL writers and feedback: Giving more autonomy to students. Language Teaching Research. 4(1): 33-54. DOI: 10.1177/136216880000400103
Kaplan, R. B. and Grabe, W. (2002) A modern history of written discourse analysis. Journal of Second Language Writing 11: 191-223. DOI:10.1016/S1060-3743(02)00085-1
Karegianes, M. L., Pascarella, E. T. and Pflaum, S. W. (1980) The effects of peer editing on the writing proficiency of low-achieving tenth grade students. Journal of Educational Research 73: 203-207.
Keh, C. L. (1990) Feedback in the writing process: a model and methods for implementation. ELT Journal 44: 294-304. DOI: 10.1093/elt/44.4.294
Kluger, A. N. and DeNisi, A. (1996) The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin 119: 254-284. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254
Kollar, I. and Fischer, F. (2010) Peer assessment as collaborative learning: a cognitive perspective. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 344-348. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.005
Lamprianou, I. and Afantiti Lamprianou, T. (2013) Charting private tutoring in Cyprus: A socio-demographic perspective. In Bray, M., Mazawi, A. E. and R. G. Sultana, R. G. (eds.) Private Tutoring Across the Mediterranean: Power Dynamics and Implications for Learning and Equity. Sense Publishers and Journal of Educational Studies 29-56.
Leki, I. (2003) A challenge to L2 writing professionals. Is writing overrated? In Kroll, B. (ed.) Exploring Second Language Writing. New York: Cambridge University Press 315-331.
Li, L., Liu, X. and Steckelberg, A. L. (2010) Assessor or assessee: how student learning improves by giving and receiving peer feedback. British Journal of Educational Technology 41(3): 525-536. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00968.x
Li, L. and Steckelberg, A. (2004) Using Peer Feedback to Enhance Student Meaningful Learning, Chicago, IL: Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
Lindsay, C. and Clarke, S. (2001) Enhancing primary science through self– and paired–assessment. Primary Science Review 68: 15–18.
Liu, J. and Hansen, J. (2002) Peer Response in Second Language Writing Classrooms. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Lockhart, C. and Ng, P. (1995) Analyzing talk in ESL peer response groups: Stances, functions and content. Language Learning 45: 605-655. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-1770.1995.tb00456.x
Lorenzo, G. and Ittelson, J. (2005) Demonstrating and assessing student learning with e- portfolios. Educause Learning Initiative. Retrieved 18 December 2014 from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli3003.pdf
MacArthur, C. A., Graham, S., and Schwartz, S. (1991) Knowledge of revision and revising behavior among students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 14: 61-73.
McIsasc, C. M. and Sepe, J. F. (1996) Improving the writing of accounting students: A cooperative venture. Journal of Accounting Education 14(4): 515-533.
Miller, L., and Ng, R. (1994) Peer assessment of oral language proficiency. Perspectives: Working papers of the Department of English. City Polytechnic of Hong Kong 6: 41-56.
Min, H. T. (2006) The effects of trained peer review on EFL students' revision types and writing quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15: 118-141. DOI:10.1016/j.jslw.2006.01.003
Nelson, G. and Carson, J. (1998) ESL students' perceptions of effectiveness in peer response groups. Joumal of Second Language Writing 7: 113-131. DOI:10.1016/S1060-3743(98)90010-8
Nicol, D. and Milligan, C. (2006) Rethinking technology-supported assessment in terms of the seven principles of good feedback practice. In C. Bryan and K. Clegg (eds.) Innovative assessment in higher education. London: Routledge 1-14.
Noonan, B. and Duncan, C. R. (2005) Peer and self-assessment in high schools. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation 10(17): 1-8.
OECD (2005) Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms. Paris: OECD.
Orsmond, P., Merry, S. and Reiling, K. (1996) The importance of marking criteria in the use of peer assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 21: 239-250. DOI:10.1080/0260293960210304
Patri, M. (2002) The influence of peer feedback on self and peer-assessment of oral skills. Language Testing 19(2): 109-131. DOI: 10.1191/0265532202lt224oa
Paulus, T. M. (1999) The effect of peer and teacher feedback on student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing 8(3): 265-289.
Peterson, S. S. and McClay, J. (2010) Assessing and providing feedback for student writing in Canadian classrooms. Assessing Writing 15(2): 86-99. DOI:10.1016/j.asw.2010.05.003
Ploegh, K., Tillema, H. H. and Segers, M. S. R. (2009) In search of quality criteria in peer assessment practices. Studies In Educational Evaluation 35(2-3): 102-109. DOI:10.1016/j.stueduc.2009.05.001
Plutsky, S. and Wilson, B. A. (2004) Comparison of the three methods for teaching and evaluating writing: A quasi-experimental study. The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal 46(1): 50-61.
Pope, N. K. L. (2005) The impact of stress in self- and peer assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 30(1): 51-63. DOI: 10.1080/0260293042000243896
Project, N. (1990) Responding to and Assessing Writing. Walton-on-Thames: Nelson.
Race, P. (1998) Practical Pointers on Peer-Assessment, Peer Assessment in Practice. Birmingham: SEDA.
Raider-Roth, M. B. (2005) Trusting what you know: negotiating the relational context of classroom life. Teachers College Record 107(4): 587-628.
Rayner, S. (2007) A teaching elixir, learning chimera or just fool’s gold? Do learning styles matter? Support for Learning 22(1): 24–30. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9604.2007.00441.x
Richer, D. L. (1992) The effects of two feedback systems on first year college students' writing proficiency. Dissertation Abstracts International 53: 2722. DOI 10.1007/s11251-010-9133-6
Rollinson, P. (2005) Using peer feedback in the ESL writing class. ELT Journal 59(1): 23-30. DOI: 10.1093/elt/cci003
Ross, A. J. (2006) The reliability, validity and utility of self-assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 11(10): 1-13.
Rouhi, A. and Azizian, E. (2013) Peer review: Is giving corrective feedback better than receiving it in L2 writing? Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 93: 1349-1354. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.042
Rudy, D. W., Fejfar, M. C., Griffith, C. H. I., and Wilson, J. F. (2001). Self- and peer assessment in a first-year communication and interviewing course. Evaluation and the Health Professions 24(4): 436-445.
Saito, H. (2008) EFL classroom peer assessment: Training effects on rating and commenting. Language Testing 25(4): 553-581. DOI: 10.1177/0265532208094276
Segers, M., Dochy, F. R. and Cascallar, E. (2003) Optimising new models of assessment: In search of qualities and standards. The Netherlands: Dordrecht, Kluwer.
Shaw, V. N. (2002) Peer-review as a motivating device in training of writing skills for college students. Journal of College Reading and Learning 33(1): 68-76. DOI:10.1080/10790195.2002.10850138
Sluijsmans, D., Brand-Gruwel, S. and Van Merriënboer, J. (2002) Peer assessment training in teacher education. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 27(5): 443-454. DOI:10.1080/10790195.2002.10850138
Sluijsmans, D., Dochy, F. and Moerkerke, G. (1999) Creating a learning environment by using self-, peer-, and co-assessment. Learning Environment Research 1: 293-319. DOI:10.1023/A:1009932704458
Sluijsmans, D. M. A., Brand-Gruwel, S., van Merriënboer, J. J. G. and Martens, R. L. (2004) Training teachers in peer-assessment skills: Effects on performance and perceptions. Innovations in Education and Teaching International 41(1): 59-78. DOI:10.1080/1470329032000172720
Stanley, J. (1992) Coaching student writers to be effective peer evaluators. Journal of Second Language Writing 1: 217-234. DOI:10.1016/1060-3743(92)90004-9
Stewart, M. and Cheung, M. (1989) Introducing a process approach in the teaching of writing in Hong Kong. Institute of Language in Education Journal 6: 41-48.
Strijbos, J.-W., Narciss, S. and Dünnebier, K. (2010) Peer feedback content and sender's competence level in academic writing revision tasks: Are they critical for feedback perceptions and efficiency? Learning and Instruction 20(4): 291-303. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.008
Strijbos, J.-W. and Sluijsmans, D. (2010) Unravelling peer assessment: Methodological, functional, and conceptual developments. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 265-269. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.002
Swan, K., Shen, J. and Hiltz, S. (2006) Assessment and collaboration in online learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 10(1): 44–61.
Thompson, C. (2002) Teaching critical thinking in EAP courses in Australia. TESOL Journal 11: 15-20. DOI: 10.1002/j.1949-3533.2002.tb00104.x
Topping, K. J. (1998) Peer assessment between students in college and university Review of Educational Research 68: 249-276.
Topping, K. J. (2003) Self and peer assessment in school and university: Reliability, validity and utility. In M. S. R. Segers, F. J. R. C. Dochy and E. C. Cascallar (eds.) Optimizing new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic: 55–87.
Topping, K. J. (2010) Methodological quandaries in studying process and outcomes in peer assessment. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 339-343. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.003
Topping, K. J. (2013) Peers as a source of formative and summative assessment. In J. McMillan (ed.) SAGE Handbook of Research on Classroom Assessment. London: Sage Publications: 395-412.
Tsai, C.-C. and Liang, J.-C. (2009) The development of science activities via on-line peer assessment: The role of scientific epistemological views. Instructional Science 37: 293–310. DOI:10.1007/s11251-007-9047-0
Tsai, C.-C., Lin, S. S. J. and Yuan, S.-M. (2002) Developing science activities through a network peer assessment system. Computers & Education 38(13): 241-252.
Tsivitanidou, O. E., Zacharia, C. Z. and Hovardas, T. (2011a) Investigating secondary school students’ unmediated peer assessment skills. Learning and Instruction 21: 506-519. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.08.002
Tsivitanidou, O. E., Zacharia, C. Z., Hovardas, T. and Nicolaou, A. (2012) Peer assessment among secondary school students: Introducing a peer feedback tool in the context of a computer supported inquiry learning environment in science. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching 31(4): 433-465.
Tsivitanidou, O. E., Zacharia, Z. C. and Hovardas, T. (2011b) Investigating secondary school students’ unmediated peer assessment skills. Learning and Instruction 21(4): 506-519. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.08.002
Tsui, A. and Ng, M. (2000) Do secondary L2 writers benefit from peer comments? Journal of Second Language Writing 9(2): 147-170. DOI:10.1016/S1060-3743(00)00022-9
van den Berg, I., Admiraal, W. and Pilot, A. (2006) Design principles and outcomes of peer assessment in higher education. Studies in Higher Education 31(3): 341-356. DOI:10.1080/03075070600680836
van Dyke, N. (2008) Self- and peer-assessment disparities in university ranking schemes. Higher Education in Europe 33 (2 and 3): 285-293. DOI: 10.1080/03797720802254114
van Gennip, N. A. E., Segers, M. S. R. and Tillema, H. H. (2009) Peer assessment for learning from a social perspective: The influence of interpersonal variables and structural features. Educational Research Review 4(1): 41-54. DOI:10.1016/j.edurev.2008.11.002
van Gennip, N. A. E., Segers, M. S. R. and Tillema, H. H. (2010) Peer assessment as a collaborative learning activity: The role of interpersonal variables and conceptions. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 280-290. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.010
Van Steendam, E., Rijlaarsdam, G., Sercu, L. and Van den Bergh, H. (2010) The effect of instruction type and dyadic or individual emulation on the quality of higher-order peer feedback in EFL. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 316-327. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.009
van Zundert, M., Sluijsmans, D. and van Merriënboer, J. (2010) Effective peer assessment processes: Research findings and future directions. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 270-279. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.004
Vanderhoven, E., Raes, A., Schellens, T. and Montrieux, H. (2012) Face-to-face peer assessment in secondary education: does anonymity matter? Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 69: 1340-1347. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.071
Vygotsky , L. (1986) Thought and Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Webb, N. M. (1991) Task-related verbal interaction and mathematics learning in small groups. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 22: 366-389.
White, R. V. and Amdt, V. (1991) Process writing London: Longman.
Xiao, Y. and Lucking, R. (2008) The impact of two types of peer assessment on students' performance and satisfaction within a Wiki environment. The Internet and Higher Education 11(3-4): 186-193. DOI:10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.06.005
Yang, M., Badger, R. and Yu, Z. (2006) A comparative study of peer and teacher feedback in a Chinese EFL writing class. Journal of Second Language Writing 15(3): 179-200. DOI:10.1016/j.jslw.2006.09.004
Yorke, M. (1998) Capability and Quality in Higher Education. London: Kogan Page.
Yu, F.-Y. and Wu, C.-P. (2013) Predictive effects of online peer feedback types on performance quality. Educational Technology & Society 16(1): 332–341.
Yu, F. Y. and Wu, C. P. (2011) Different identity revelation modes in an online peer-assessment learning environment: Effects on perceptions toward assessors, classroom climate and learning activities. Computers & Education. 57(3): 2167-2177. DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.05.012
Zhao, H. (2010) Investigating learners’ use and understanding of peer and teacher feedback on writing: A comparative study in a Chinese English writing classroom. Assessing Writing 15(1): 3-17. DOI:10.1016/j.asw.2010.01.002
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.