English Language Learners’ Perceptions of the Usefulness of Types of Form-Focused Written Feedback


  • John Haupt Ohio University
  • Dawn Bikowski Ohio University




feedback, writing instruction, second language writing, student perceptions, form-focused


Providing English language learners with effective feedback on their writing is an issue facing many writing teachers. This article focuses on English language learners’ perceptions of both direct and indirect form-focused written feedback and how these perceptions might change over time. Forty-two advanced level students in an intensive English program at a large U.S. university participated in two surveys, one at the beginning of the term and one at the end. They were asked to rate and comment on the usefulness of five types of feedback (three indirect and two direct) for the purposes of both text revision and the learning of grammar and writing. Students perceived the feedback types that provide codes, comments, and/or explanations as being more useful overall in text revision than other forms of feedback. Findings indicate that students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of feedback types changed throughout the course. Three areas of feedback that students focused on as their perceptions change are identified, as are reasons why students did or did not value each of the feedback types.

Author Biographies

John Haupt, Ohio University

John Haupt received his Master’s degree in Linguistics from Ohio University in 2012. He worked as an instructor in the Ohio Program of Intensive English and the English Language Improvement Program until August 2014. Currently, he is studying at the University of Kentucky for a Master’s degree in Diplomacy and International Commerce at the Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce, and he is concurrently studying for a Graduate Certificate in International Education. His concentration is in international education development and international education exchange.

Dawn Bikowski, Ohio University

Dawn Bikowski is the Director of the English Language Improvement Program in the Linguistics Department at Ohio University. Having received her M.A. in Linguistics and her Ph.D. in Instructional Technology from Ohio University, her research focuses on writing, particularly on writing and technology. She has published in Language Learning & Technology, Journal of Second Language Writing, and English for Specific Purposes, among other journals. International teacher training workshops, curriculum development projects, and program assessments have taken her to many countries in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East.



How to Cite

Haupt, J., & Bikowski, D. (2014). English Language Learners’ Perceptions of the Usefulness of Types of Form-Focused Written Feedback. Writing and Pedagogy, 6(2), 283–305. https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v6i2.283



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