Influences on Teachers’ Corrective Feedback Choices in Second Language Writing


  • K. James Hartshorn Brigham Young University
  • Norman W. Evans Brigham Young University
  • Emily Allen Tuioti Brigham Young University



corrective feedback, linguistic accuracy, L2 writing, writing pedagogy, writing teachers


As research on corrective feedback targeting linguistic accuracy in second language (L2) writing expands in scope and quality, we continue to gain insights about the effects of feedback on L2 writers. Nevertheless, comparatively little research has focused on the teachers themselves – those who make the pedagogical decisions about the use of feedback in the classroom. Thus, we have sought to better understand the variables that may shape practitioners’ choices about feedback targeting linguistic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to analyze learner, teacher, and situational variables that may influence correct feedback choices in the L2 classroom. Data were collected by means of an electronic survey distributed to over 1000 ESL/EFL writing teachers in 69 different nations. In addition to investigating the entire data set, we examined those practitioners who provide the most and least feedback targeting linguistic accuracy. We analyzed variables such as learner age, proficiency, purposes for language learning, the ESL/EFL context, and type of institution, as well as the teachers’ L1, level of education, academic background, years of experience, and professional responsibilities. A number of systematic differences between groups were observed. Explanations for these findings are explored and suggestions are given for future research.

Author Biographies

K. James Hartshorn, Brigham Young University

K. James Hartshorn received his Ph.D. from Brigham Young University (BYU) in Instructional Psychology with a specialization in Second Language Acquisition. He has been involved in second language education in the United States and Asia for more than two decades. He currently serves as Associate Coordinator of BYU’s English Language Center. In addition to curriculum development and teacher preparation, James is interested in the effects of formal instruction on second language development, particularly in second language writing. He is a regular reviewer for a number of journals and currently serves on the Editorial and Advisory Board for TESOL Quarterly.

Norman W. Evans, Brigham Young University

Norman W. Evans is an Associate Professor in the Department of Linguistics and English Language at Brigham Young University. Since completing his Doctorate at the University of Southern California, his research has been focused on international student adjustment issues, language curriculum development, and second language writing – specifically, written corrective feedback. He has co authored with Maureen Andrade Principles and Practices for Response in Second Language Writing: Developing Self-Regulated Learners (Routledge, 2012).

Emily Allen Tuioti, Brigham Young University

Emily Allen Tuioti is a Master’s degree student in the TESOL Program at Brigham Young University. She has varied interests in TESOL and linguistics, including written corrective feedback and vocabulary research and pedagogy. While studying linguistics as an undergraduate student, Emily was awarded a research grant by the BYU Office of Research and Creative Activities to work on a research project with a faculty member in her discipline. As a result of this grant and associated studies, Emily has begun presenting and publishing her research.


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How to Cite

Hartshorn, K. J., Evans, N. W., & Tuioti, E. A. (2014). Influences on Teachers’ Corrective Feedback Choices in Second Language Writing. Writing and Pedagogy, 6(2), 251–282.



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