Influences on Teachers’ Corrective Feedback Choices in Second Language Writing

Authors

  • K. James Hartshorn Brigham Young University
  • Norman W. Evans Brigham Young University
  • Emily Allen Tuioti Brigham Young University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v6i2.251

Keywords:

corrective feedback, linguistic accuracy, L2 writing, writing pedagogy, writing teachers

Abstract

As research on corrective feedback targeting linguistic accuracy in second language (L2) writing expands in scope and quality, we continue to gain insights about the effects of feedback on L2 writers. Nevertheless, comparatively little research has focused on the teachers themselves – those who make the pedagogical decisions about the use of feedback in the classroom. Thus, we have sought to better understand the variables that may shape practitioners’ choices about feedback targeting linguistic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to analyze learner, teacher, and situational variables that may influence correct feedback choices in the L2 classroom. Data were collected by means of an electronic survey distributed to over 1000 ESL/EFL writing teachers in 69 different nations. In addition to investigating the entire data set, we examined those practitioners who provide the most and least feedback targeting linguistic accuracy. We analyzed variables such as learner age, proficiency, purposes for language learning, the ESL/EFL context, and type of institution, as well as the teachers’ L1, level of education, academic background, years of experience, and professional responsibilities. A number of systematic differences between groups were observed. Explanations for these findings are explored and suggestions are given for future research.

Author Biographies

K. James Hartshorn, Brigham Young University

K. James Hartshorn received his Ph.D. from Brigham Young University (BYU) in Instructional Psychology with a specialization in Second Language Acquisition. He has been involved in second language education in the United States and Asia for more than two decades. He currently serves as Associate Coordinator of BYU’s English Language Center. In addition to curriculum development and teacher preparation, James is interested in the effects of formal instruction on second language development, particularly in second language writing. He is a regular reviewer for a number of journals and currently serves on the Editorial and Advisory Board for TESOL Quarterly.

Norman W. Evans, Brigham Young University

Norman W. Evans is an Associate Professor in the Department of Linguistics and English Language at Brigham Young University. Since completing his Doctorate at the University of Southern California, his research has been focused on international student adjustment issues, language curriculum development, and second language writing – specifically, written corrective feedback. He has co authored with Maureen Andrade Principles and Practices for Response in Second Language Writing: Developing Self-Regulated Learners (Routledge, 2012).

Emily Allen Tuioti, Brigham Young University

Emily Allen Tuioti is a Master’s degree student in the TESOL Program at Brigham Young University. She has varied interests in TESOL and linguistics, including written corrective feedback and vocabulary research and pedagogy. While studying linguistics as an undergraduate student, Emily was awarded a research grant by the BYU Office of Research and Creative Activities to work on a research project with a faculty member in her discipline. As a result of this grant and associated studies, Emily has begun presenting and publishing her research.

References

Anderson, L. W. and Bourke, S., F. (2000) Assessing affective characteristics in the schools. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Artman-Meeker, K. M. and Hemmeter, M. L. (2013) Effects of training and feedback on teachers’ use of classroom preventive practices. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education 33: 112–123.

Bitchener, J. (2012) A reflection of the ‘language learning potential’ of written CF. Journal of Second Language Writing 21: 348–363.

Bitchener, J. and Knoch, U. (2010a). The contribution of written corrective feedback to language development: A ten month investigation. Applied Linguistics 31: 193-214.

Bitchener, J. and Knoch, U. (2010b). Raising the linguistic accuracy level of advanced L2 writers with written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19: 207-217.

Borg, S. (2009). Language teacher cognition. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (eds.) The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education 163-171. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bowen, J. D., Madsen, H. and Hilferty, A. (1985) TESOL: Techniques and Procedures. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Casanave, C. P. (2009) Training for writing or training for reality? Challenges facing EFL writing teachers and students in language teacher education programs. In R. M. Manchón (ed.) Writing in Foreign Language Contexts 256–277. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

Chan, D. (2009) So why ask me? Are self-report data really that bad? In C. E. Lance and R. J. Vandenberg (eds.) Statistical and Methodological Myths and Urban Legends: Doctrine, Verity and Fable in the Organizational and Social Sciences 309–335. New York, NY: Routledge.

Farrell, T. S. C. (2006) Reflective practice in action: a case study of a writing teacher’s reflections on practice. TESL Canada Journal 23: 77–90.

Farrell, T. S. C. (2009). The novice teacher experience. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (eds.) The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education 182-189. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ferris, D. R. (2006) Does error feedback help student writers? In K. Hyland and F. Hyland (eds.) Feedback in Second Language Writing: Contexts and Issues 81–104. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gianoumis, S., Seiverling, L. and Sturmey, P. (2012) The effects of behavior skills training on correct teacher implementation of natural language paradigm teaching skills and child behavior. Behavioral Interventions 27: 57–74.

Hartwell, P. (1985) Grammar, grammars, and the teaching of grammar. College English 47: 105-127.

Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C., Burchinal, M., Field, S., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Downer, J. T., Howes, C., LaParo, K. and Scott-Little, C. (2012) A course on effective teacher-child interactions: Effects on teacher beliefs, knowledge, and observed practice. American Educational Research Journal 49: 88–123.

Hirvela, A. and Belcher, D. (2007). Writing scholars as teacher educators: Exploring writing teacher education. Journal of Second Language Writing 16: 125–128.

Huck, S. W. (2008) Reading Statistics and Research (5th ed.). New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.

Johnson, E., Ruecker, T., Shapiro, S. and Tardy, C. (2010). Exploring and re-imagining second language writing in TESOL. A presentation given at the TESOL Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.

Kormos, J. (2012) The role of individual differences in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing 21: 390–403.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (1994) The postmethod condition: (e)merging strategies for second/foreign language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 28: 27–48.

Lee, I. (2008) Understanding teachers’ written feedback practices in Hong Kong secondary classrooms. Journal of Second Language Writing 17: 69–85.

Lee, I. (2009) Ten mismatches between teachers’ beliefs and written feedback practice. ELT Journal 63: 13–22.

Lee, I. (2010) Writing teacher education and teacher learning: testimonies of four EFL teachers. Journal of Second Language Writing 19: 143–157.

Lee, I. (2013). Research into practice: written corrective feedback. Language Teaching 46: 108–119.

Legutke, M. K. and Ditfurth, M. S. (2009). School-based experience. In A. Burns and J. Richards (eds.) Second Language Teacher Education, 209–217. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lortie, D. (1975) Schoolteacher: A Sociological Study. London, UK: University of Chicago Press.

Morningstar, M. E. and Benitez, D. T. (2013) Teacher training matters: The results of a multistate survey of secondary special educators regarding transition from school to adulthood. Teacher Education and Special Education 36: 51–64.

Nation, I. S. P. and Macalister, J. (2009) Language Curriculum Design. New York & London: Routledge.

Pearson, R. W. (2010) Statistical Persuasion: How to Collect, Analyze, and Present Data . . . Accurately, Honestly, and Persuasively. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Reichelt, M. (2009) A critical evaluation of writing teaching programmes in different foreign language settings. In R. M. Manchón (ed.) Writing in Foreign Language Contexts 183–208. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

Richards, J. C. (1998) Beyond Training. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Sheen, Y. (2007) The effect of focused written corrective feedback and language aptitude on ESL learners’ acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly 41: 255–283.

Storch, N. and Wigglesworth, G. (2010) Learners’ processing, uptake, and retention of corrective feedback on writing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 32: 303–334.

Truscott, J. (1996) The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning 46: 327–369.

Truscott, J. (1999a) The case for ‘the case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes’: a response to Ferris. Journal of Second Language Writing 8: 111–122.

Truscott, J. (2004) Evidence and conjecture on the effects of correction: a response to Chandler. Journal of Second Language Writing 13: 337–343.

Truscott, J. (2007) The effect of error correction on learners’ ability to write accurately. Journal of Second Language Writing 16: 255–272.

Truscott, J. (2010) Some thoughts on Anthony Bruton’s critique of the correction debate. System 38: 329–335.

Truscott, J. and Hsu, A. Y. (2008) Error correction, revision, and learning. Journal of Second Language Writing 17: 292–305.

Van Beuningan, C., de Jong, N. H. and Kuiken, F. (2012) Evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive error correction in Dutch multilingual classroom. Language Learning 62: 1–41.

Published

2014-09-22

How to Cite

Hartshorn, K. J., Evans, N. W., & Tuioti, E. A. (2014). Influences on Teachers’ Corrective Feedback Choices in Second Language Writing. Writing & Pedagogy, 6(2), 251-282. https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v6i2.251

Issue

Section

Research Matters

Most read articles by the same author(s)