Delving into Third Space

Supporting Multilingual and Multicultural Students’ Writing

Authors

  • Margarita Zisselsberger Loyola University
  • Lori Czop Assaf Texas State University - San Marcos
  • Sunita Singh Le Moyne College

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v4i1.69

Keywords:

multilingual and multicultural students, third space, writing, writing pedagogy

Abstract

As the number of pupils who are multilingual and multicultural continues to increase in the United States, finding ways to best support these learners’ writing has become a priority. This project explores the creation and use of third spaces that support writing in three diverse urban classroom contexts. Ethnographic case studies reveal the ways in which teachers created third spaces for multicultural and multilingual students’ voices to be heard (Bakhtin, 1986; Dyson, 2003). Findings suggest that co-constructing third spaces can contribute to a writing pedagogy that includes multilingual and multicultural student discourse(s) while expanding the social and practical purposes for writing. These findings have implications for teacher educators, researchers, and classroom teachers with regard to the power of co-constructed spaces where students’ lives and languages are used as the foundation for merging school and local networks.

Author Biographies

Margarita Zisselsberger, Loyola University

Margarita Zisselsberger is an Assistant Professor in Literacy at Loyola University Maryland in Baltimore, Maryland. Her research interests include the language and literacy development of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD ) learners. Recent publication includes a co-authored chapter in T. Lucas (ed.), Envisioning Possibilities: Preparing All Teachers to Teach English Language Learners. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Lori Czop Assaf, Texas State University - San Marcos

Lori Czop Assaf is an Associate Professor in Curriculum and Instruction at Texas State University – San Marcos and is the Director of the Central Texas Writing Project. Her research is in adolescent writing instruction, teacher education, and literacy assessment. She has published several articles and book chapters on teacher education, writing instruction for English language learners, and literacy assessment.

Sunita Singh, Le Moyne College

Sunita Singh, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Education at Le Moyne College in Syracuse, New York. Dr. Singh’s current research explores ways in which teachers can be supported to provide developmentally appropriate literacy instruction to all children, especially in classrooms that are culturally and linguistically diverse. Dr. Singh’s recent publications include an article in the Journal of Reading Education and a co-authored chapter in the Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts.

References

Assaf, L.C. (2009, December) Mediating academic language and literacy for secondary English language learners. Presentation at the 59th Annual National Reading Conference. Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Bakhtin, M. M. (1986) Speech Genres and Other Late Essays (trans. V. W. McGee). Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.

Bizzell, P. (1992) Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Blanton, L. L. (2005) Student interrupted: A tale of two would be writers. Journal of Second Language Writing 14: 105–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2005.04.001

Bogdan, R. C. and Biklen, S. K. (1992) Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods (2nd edition). Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.

Brisk, M., Burgos, A. and Hamerla, S. (2004) Situational Context of Education: A Window into the World of Bilingual Learners. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Calkins, L. (1994) The Art of Teaching Writing (2nd edition). Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Cazden, C. B. (1988) Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Charmaz, K. C. (2006) Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Christie, F. (1986) Writing in schools: Generic structures as ways of meaning. In B. Couture (ed.) Functional Approaches to Writing: Research Perspectives 221–240. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Chomsky, C. (1971) Write first, read later. Childhood Education 47: 296–299.

Clay, M. M. (1975) What Did I Write? Auckland: Heinemann.

Cummins, J. (1994) From coercive to collaborative relations of power in the teaching of literacy. In B. M. Ferdman, R. Weber and A. Ramirez (eds.) Literacy across Languages and Cultures 295–331. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

Cummins, J. (2000) Language, Power, and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Delpit, L. (1995) Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. New York: New Press.

Dyson, A. H. (2001) Writing and children’s symbolic repertoires: Development unhinged. In S. B. Neuman and D. K. Dickinson (eds.) Handbook of Early Literacy Research 126–141. New York: Guilford.

Dyson, A. H. (2003) The Brothers and Sisters Learn to Write: Popular Literacies in Childhood and School Cultures. New York: Teachers College Press.

Dyson, A.H. (2005) Crafting “the humble prose of living”: Rethinking oral/written relations in the echoes of spoken word. English Education 37: 149–164.

Erickson, F. (1986) Qualitative methods in research on teaching. In M. C. Wittrock (ed.) Handbook of Research on Teaching (3rd edition) 119–161. New York: Macmillan.

Fitts, S. (2009) Exploring third space in a dual-language setting: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Latinos and Education 8: 87–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15348430902750668

Fitzgerald, J. (2006) Multilingual writing in preschool through 12th grade: The last 15 years. In C. MacArthur, S. Graham and J. Fitzgerald (eds.) Handbook of Writing Research 337–354. New York: The Guilford Press.

Gebhard, M., Harman, R. and Seger, W. (2007) Reclaiming recess: Learning the language of persuasion. Language Arts 84: 419–430.

Gee, J. P. (1996) Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses (2nd edition). London: Falmer Press.

Glaser, B., and Strauss, A. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Hawthorne, New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Graves, D. H. (2003) Writing: Teachers and Children at Work. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Gutiérrez, K. (1995) Unpacking academic discourse. Discourse Processes, 19: 21–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01638539109544903

Gutiérrez, K. (2008) Developing a sociocritical literacy in the third space. Reading Research Quarterly 43: 148–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.43.2.3

Gutiérrez, K., Baquedano-López, P. and Tejeda, C. (2000) Rethinking diversity: Hybridity and hybrid language practices in the third space. Mind, Culture, and Activity 6: 286–303.

Gutiérrez, K., Baquedano-López, P. and Turner, M. (1997) Putting language back into the language arts: When the radical middle meets the third space. Language Arts 74: 368–378.

Hayes, J. (2006) New directions in writing theory. In C. MacArthur, S. Graham and J. Fitzgerald (eds.) Handbook of Writing Research 28–40. New York: The Guilford Press.

Heath, S. B. (1983) Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heath, S. B. and Mangiola, L. (1991) Children of Promise: Literate Activity in Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Classrooms. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association.

Hicks, D. (2002) Reading Lives: Working-Class Children and Literacy Learning. New York: Teachers College Press

Levy, R. (2008) “Third spaces” are interesting places: Applying “third space theory” to nursery aged children’s constructions of themselves as readers. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy 8: 43–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468798407087161

Lincoln, Y. S., and Guba, E. (2000) Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. In N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research (2nd edition) 163–188. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Lowery, L. (1993) The Giver. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

McCarthey, S. and Moje, E. (2002) Conversations: Identity matters. Reading Research Quarterly 37: 228–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.37.2.6

McGinnis, T. (2007) Khmer rap boys, X-Men, Asia’s fruits, and Dragonball Z: Creating multilingual and multimodal classroom contexts. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 50: 570–579. doi: 10.1598.

Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A. M. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Moje, E. (2002) But where are the youth? On the value of integrating youth culture into literacy theory. Educational Theory 52: 97–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2002.00097.x

Moje, E., Ciechanowski, M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carillo, R. and Collazo, T. (2004) Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everyday funds of knoweldge and discourse. Reading Research Quarterly 39: 38–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.39.1.4

Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & González, N. (1992) Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice 31: 132–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405849209543534

Moll, L. C., and González, N. (1994) Lessons from research with language-minority children. Journal of Reading Behavior 26: 439–456.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2003) NAEP Data Explorer. Retrieved July 17, 2006, from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard.nde

National Commission on Writing in America’s Schools and Colleges (2003) The Neglected “R”: The Need for a Writing Revolution. New York: College Board.

Pérez, B. (ed.) (1998) Sociocultural Contexts of Langauge and Literacy. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reyes, I. and Azuara, P. (2008) Emergent biliteracy in young Mexican immigrant children. Reading Research Quarterly 43: 374–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.43.4.4

Schickendanz, J. (1996) More than ABC’s: The Early Stages of Reading and Writing. Washington, D.C.: National Association for Education of Young Children.

Schleppegrell, M. (2004) The Language of Schooling: A Functional Perspective. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Scollon, R. and Scollon, S. W. (1981) Narrative, Literacy, and Face in Interethnic Communication. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.

Scollon, R. and Scollon, S. W. (1995) Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Singh, S. (2007) Changes in Literacy Beliefs and Practices of a Kindergarten Teacher: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

Soja, E. (1996) Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell.

Turner, J. (2005) Orchestrating success for African American readers: The case of an effective third grade teacher. Reading Research and Instruction 44: 27–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19388070509558435

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes (eds. Michael Cole, Vera John-Steiner, Sylvia Scribner and Ellen Souberman). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1986) Thought and Language. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press (originally published in 1962).

Zisselsberger, M. (2009, December) Looking towards a new writing pedagogy: Hybridization and learning in a multilingual and multicultural setting. Presentation at the 59th Annual National Reading Conference. Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Published

2012-07-02

How to Cite

Zisselsberger, M., Czop Assaf, L., & Singh, S. (2012). Delving into Third Space: Supporting Multilingual and Multicultural Students’ Writing. Writing & Pedagogy, 4(1), 69-97. https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v4i1.69

Issue

Section

Research Matters