Writing in Cyberspaces


  • Elizabeth Hanson-Smith California State University; Sacramento/Computers for Education




writing and computers, multimedia


Advances in technology, such as the word-processor, have long supported the pedagogy of composition. However, in the Internet environment a variety of electronic tools and multimedia can further enhance best practices in teaching writing: the integration of reading and writing, recursive drafting, targeted grammar and vocabulary study, peer review, and publication.

Author Biography

Elizabeth Hanson-Smith, California State University; Sacramento/Computers for Education

Professor Emeritus at California State University, Sacramento, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith is lead designer of the Oxford Picture Dictionary Interactive and pedagogical consultant for Live Action English Interactive. She wrote Constructing the Paragraph, software for composition classes. She consults for and teaches online courses, including TESOL's Electronic Village Online. Author of many articles on CALL pedagogy, her books include Learning Languages through Computers (co-editor Sarah Rilling) and CALL Environments: Research, Practice and Critical Issues, 2nd edition (co-edited with Joy Egbert).


Burke, J. (2008) Illuminating Texts: How to Teach Students to Read the World. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Cobb, T. (2008) The compleat lexical tutor. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from

Council of Europe (2001) A Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Egbert, J., Hanson-Smith, E., and Chao, C-c. (2008) Foundations for teaching and learning. In J. Egbert and E. Hanson-Smith (eds.) CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues 1–14. (2nd edition.) Alexandria, Virginia: TESOL.

Ellis, R. (1990) Instructed Second Language Acquisition: Learning in the Classroom. Oxford: Blackwell.

Gaer, S. (2007) Email projects home page. Outreach and technical assistance network. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://http://www.susangaer.com/studentprojects/email.htm.

Godwin-Jones, R. (2008) Web-writing 2.0: Enabling, documenting, and assessing writing online. Language Learning & Technology 12(2): 7–12. Retrieved on 22 November 2008 from http://llt.msu.edu/vol12num2/vo12num2.pdf

González, D. (2006) Using synchronous communication collaboratively in ESP. In E. Hanson-Smith and S. Rilling (eds.) Learning Languages through Technology 11–24. Alexandria, Virginia: TESOL.

Hanson-Smith, E. (1997) Multimedia projects for EFL/ESL students. CAELL Journal 7(4): 3–12. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://webpages.csus.edu/~hansonsm/Multimedia_Projects.html

Hanson-Smith, E. (2006–2008) EVO video archives. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://evovideo.wikispaces.com

Hanson-Smith, E. (2007) Content and language. In E. Hanson-Smith and J. Egbert (eds.) CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues 131–43. (2nd edition.) Alexandria, Virginia: TESOL.

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) (2007) The ISTE National Educational Technology Standards (NETS•S) and Performance Indicators for Students. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://www.iste.org/Content/NavigationMenu/NETS/ForStudents/2007Standards/NETS_for_Students_2007_Standards.pdf.

Jacobs, G. and Rodgers, C. (1999) Treacherous allies: Foreign language grammar checkers. CALICO Journal 16(4): 509–29. Retrieved 23 November 2008 from https://calico.org/html/article_626.pdf.

Johns, A. M. (1986) The ESL student and the revision process: Some insights from schema theory. Journal of Basic Writing 5(2): 70–80.

Macrorie, K. (1988) The I-Search Paper. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann (Boynton/Cook).

Petrie, G M. (2007) Visuality. In E. Hanson-Smith and J. Egbert (eds.) CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues 319–28. (2nd edition.) Alexandria, Virginia: TESOL.

Raimes, A. (1985) What unskilled ESL students do as they write: A classroom study of composing. TESOL Quarterly 19(2): 229–58.

Seagrave, P. (2000) I-Search Paper Format Guide. English Works! English tutoring and writing center, Gallaudet University. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/formatsheet.html.

Smithsonian Institution (n.d.) Board of regents, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://www.si.edu/.

Spack, R. (2006) Guidelines: A Cross-cultural Reading/Writing Text. (3rd edition.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stevens, V. (2002) Webheads in action. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://groups.yahoo.com/group/evonline2002_webheads.

TESOL (2007) ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students, Online Edition. Retrieved on 31 January 2009 from http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/seccss.asp?CID=113&DID=1583.

Tsai, J-M. (2006) Connecting reading and writing in college ESL courses. Internet TESL Journal 12(12): n.p. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Tsai-ReadingWritingConnection.html.

Widdowson, H. G. (1978) Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yeh, A. (2006) Constructive criticisms on students’ final informative speeches. Aiden Yeh’s speech class podcast. Retrieved 10 October 2008 from http://aidenyeh.podomatic.com/entry/eg/2006–01–09T06_06_08–08_00.

Yeh, A. (2008) English advertising class. Retrieved on 23 November 2008 from http://english-ad.blogspot.com/.

Zamel, V. (1976) Teaching composition in the ESL classroom: What we can learn from research in the teaching of English. TESOL Quarterly 10(1): 67–76.

Zamel, V. (1982) Writing: The process of discovering meaning. TESOL Quarterly 16(2): 195–209.

Zamel, V. (1985) Responding to student writing. TESOL Quarterly 19(1): 79–97.

Zeinstejer, R. (2007) CAEB’s podcast. http://caeb2006.podomatic.com.



How to Cite

Hanson-Smith, E. (2010). Writing in Cyberspaces. Writing and Pedagogy, 1(1), 131-142. https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v1i1.131



From the e-Sphere