Pedagogical Applications of a Second Language Writing Model at Elementary and Middle School Levels

Authors

  • Paula Lee Kristmanson University of New Brunswick
  • Joseph Dicks University of New Brunswick
  • Josée Le Bouthillier University of New Brunswick

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v1i1.37

Keywords:

Writing Instruction, Participatory Action Research, Collaborative Inquiry

Abstract

This article describes an action research project conducted at two public schools in an urban center in the province of New Brunswick in eastern Canada. The project involved the development of and experimentation with a model for the instruction of writing (ÉCRI – écriture cohérente et raisonnée en immersion) at both the elementary and middle-school levels. Research questions focused on gaining insight into best practices for teaching writing through practitioner dialogue in professional learning communities (PLCs), classroom observation and videotaping, teacher reflections, and stimulated recall. The data gathered were analyzed to determine similarities and differences between the implementation of the model in elementary and middle school settings as well as second-language and first-language learning contexts. Results of the study demonstrate the applicability of this multi-phase model at both levels and in both learning environments and the adaptations necessary to meet the needs of learners in these contexts.

Author Biographies

Paula Lee Kristmanson, University of New Brunswick

Faculty of Education- Assistant Professor Second Language Research Institute of Canada- Researcher

Joseph Dicks, University of New Brunswick

Faculty of Education- Professor Second Language Research Institute of Canada- Director

Josée Le Bouthillier, University of New Brunswick

Second Language Research Institute of Canada- Faculty Associate

References

Arpin, L. and Capra, L. (2001) L’Apprentissage par Projets. Montréal: Chenelière/ McGraw Hill.

Belgar, D. and Hunt, A. (2005) Six principles for teaching foreign language vocabulary: A commentary on Laufer, Meara, and Nation’s ‘Ten best ideas’. The Language Teacher 29(7): 7–10.

Blain, S. and Painchaud, G. (1999) L’impact de la rétroaction verbale des pairs sur l’amélioration des compositions des élèves de 5e année en immersion française. The Canadian Modern Language Review/ La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes 56(1): 73–98.

Boscolo, P. and Gelati, C. (2007) Best practices in promoting motivation for writing. In S. Graham, C. A. MacArthur, and J. Fitzgerald (eds.) Best Practices in Writing Instruction 202–21. New York: Guilford Press.

Bromley, K. (2004) Rethinking vocabulary instruction. The Language and Literacy Spectrum 14: 3–13.

Calkins, L. (1983) Lessons From a Child. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Calkins, L. (2006) First Hand: Units for Studying Writing. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Cornaire, C. and Raymond, P. (1994) Le Point sur…La Production Écrite en Didactique des Langues. Montréal: Centre Éducatif et Culturel.

Cumming, A. (2001) Learning to write in a second language: Two decades of research. International Journal of English Studies 1(2): 1–23.

Cummins, J., Brown, K., and Sayers, D. (2007) Literacy, Technology and Diversity: Teaching for Success in Changing Times. Toronto: Pearson.

DuFour, R. Eaker, R., and DuFour, R. (2005) On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, Indiana: Solution Tree.

Durrant, J. and Holden, J. (2006) Teachers Leading Change: Doing Research for School Improvement. London: Sage.

Fitzgerald, J. (1993) Literacy and students who are learning English as a second language. The Reading Teacher 46(8): 638–47.

Fullan, M. (2005) Professional learning communities writ large. In DuFour et al. (2005) 209–22.

Gardner, H. (1993) Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books.

Grabe, W. (2001) Reading-writing relations: Theoretical perspectives and instructional practices. In D. Belcher and A. Hirvela (eds.) Linking Literacies: Perspectives on L2 Reading-Writing Connections 15–47. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Graham, S., MacArthur, C. A., and Fitzgerald, J. (eds.) (2007) Best Practices in Writing Instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

Graves, D. (1983) Writing: Teachers & Children at Work. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Gustavsen, B. (2006) Theory and practice: The mediating discourse. In P. Reason and H. Bradbury (eds.) Handbook of Action Research 17–26. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Guthrie, J.T., Grambrell, L.B., Morrow, L.M., and Pressley, M. (2007) Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. (3rd edition.) New York: Guilford Press.

Hall, K. (1993) Processus d’écriture en immersion française. Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes 49(2): 760–79.

Harley, B. (1991) Directions in immersion research. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 12(1) and 12(2): 9–19.

Harley, B. (1994) Appealing to consciousness in the L2 classroom. AILA Review 11: 57–68.

Harris, A. and Muijs, D. (2005) Improving Schools Through Teacher Leadership. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

Heron, J. and Reason, P. (2006) The practice of cooperative inquiry: Research ‘with’ rather than ‘on’ people. In P. Reason and H. Bradbury (eds.) Handbook of Action Research 144–54. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Horst, M. and Collins, L. (2006) From faible to strong: How does your vocabulary grow? Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes 63(1): 83–106.

Howden, J. and Kopiec, M. (2002) Cultiver la collaboration. Montréal: Chenelière / McGraw Hill.

Jacobson, J. (2003) Second language literacy development: From theory to practice. California Reader 37(1): 12–20.

Kristmanson, P., Dicks, J., and Le Bouthillier, J. (2008) ÉCRI: A writing model incorporating best practices in French immersion. Aveiro, Portugal: Proceedings of the IASK (International Association for the Scientific Knowledge) Teaching and Learning: 783–91.

Kristmanson, P., Dicks, J., Le Bouthillier, J., and Bourgoin, R. (2008a) Les meilleurs pratiques de l’écriture et le rôle d’une communauté professionnelle d’apprentissage en immersion. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics 11(1): 41–62.

Kristmanson, P., Dicks, J., Le Bouthillier, J., and Bourgoin, R. (2008b) Exploring the teaching of writing through a professional learning community. Education Canada 48(3): 37–9.

Laufer, B. Meara, P., and Nation, P. (2005) Ten best ideas for teaching vocabulary. The Language Teacher 29(7): 3–6.

Leblanc, R. (1990) National Core French Study – A Synthesis. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers and M Editeur.

Marlow, B. and Page, P. (2005) Creating and Sustaining the Constructivist Classroom. (2nd edition.) Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

McKeough, A., Palmer, J., Jarvey, M., and Bird, S. (2007) Best narrative writing practices when teaching from a developmental framework. In S. Graham, C. A. MacArthur, and J. Fitzgerald 50–73. Best Practices in Writing Instruction 13–27. New York: Guilford Press.

Nation, P. (2001) Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nation, P. (2007) The four strands. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 1(1): 1–13.

Netten, J. and Germain, C. (2004) Developing the curriculum for intensive French. Canadian Modern Language Review 60(3): 295–308.

Netten, J., Germain, C., and Séguin, S. (2002) L’apprentissage Intensif du Français: Rapport Final. Canada: Patrimoine canadien.

Peregoy, S. and Boyle, O. (2005) Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers. Boston: Pearson Education.

Pressley, M., Mohan, L., Fingeret, L., Reffitt, K., and Raphael-Bogart, L. (2007) Writing instruction in engaging and effective elementary settings. In S. Graham, C. A. MacArthur, and J. Fitzgerald (eds.) Best Practices in Writing Instruction 13–27. New York: Guilford Press.

Prenouveau, J. (2007) Cultiver le Goût de Lire et d’Écrire. Montréal: Chenelière.

Pritchard, R. and Honeycutt, R. (2007) Best practices in implementing a process approach to teaching writing. In S. Graham, C. A. MacArthur, and J. Fitzgerald (eds.) Best Practices in Writing Instruction 28–49. New York: Guilford Press.

Schmoker, M. (2005) Here and now: Improving teaching and learning. In R. DuFour, R. Eaker, and R. DuFour, R. (eds.) On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities 209–22. Bloomington, Indiana: Solution Tree.

Spandal, V. and Hicks, J. (2005) Ma Trousse d’Écriture. Montréal: Chenelière.

Swain, M. (2000) The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In J. P. Lantolf (ed.) Social Theory and Second Language Learning 97–114. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M. (2005) Reformulation: The cognitive conflict and L2 learning it generates. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 15(1): 5–28.

Trehearne, M. (2005) Littératie dès la Maternelle (adaptation de l’ouvrage de M. Trehearne). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Trehearne, M. (2006a) Comprehensive Literacy Resource. Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Trehearne, M. (2006b) Littératie de la 3e à la 6e Année (adaptation de l’ouvrage de M. Trehearne). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., and Hyde, A. (2005) Best Practice: Today’s Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s School. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Published

2010-01-16

How to Cite

Kristmanson, P. L., Dicks, J., & Le Bouthillier, J. (2010). Pedagogical Applications of a Second Language Writing Model at Elementary and Middle School Levels. Writing and Pedagogy, 1(1), 37-62. https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v1i1.37

Issue

Section

Research Matters