Sociolinguistic Studies <p>This journal takes an ecumenical approach to the different schools, methodological principles or research orientations within sociolinguistic research and also accepts contributions from related fields such as pragmatics, discourse analysis, conversational analysis, interactional linguistics, language acquisition and socialization, linguistic anthropology, ethnomethodology and the ethnography of communication. Papers may examine any issue in sociolinguistic research and occasionally papers are accepted for publication in Spanish, Galician, Portuguese or French (90% of the contents are in English). <a href="">Read more</a>.</p> en-US <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> (Xoán Paulo Rodríguez-Yáñez) (Ailsa Parkin) Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Re-thinking everyday metaphors through Indigenous Ghanaian languages <p>The purpose of this Special Issue is to expand our understanding of conceptual metaphors in six of Ghana’s Indigenous languages: Asante-Twi, Gonja, Likpakpaln, Mfantse, Nzema, and Safaliba. The authors bring new knowledge to the international community from these understudied languages, which may become inaccessible in the not too distant future, particularly those from oral sources, given Ghana’s political embrace of neoliberal global flows of people, goods, and information which expands the reaches of language shift. Nevertheless, the specific metaphor data from the languages in this Special Issue represent the first preliminary examples of documentation and hence are of foundational significance, as the data generate new understandings.&nbsp;</p> Ari Sherris (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ‘My heart tears’ and ‘my eyes open’ <p>Events of tearing in Asante-Twi (Akan, Niger-Congo, Kwa) are described with two verbs, te ‘to tear’ and suane ‘to tear lengthwise’. The former is generic and describes all forms of tearing. The latter, which is more specific, describes tearing events that are carried out in a lengthwise manner (Agyepong, 2017). Characteristic of verbs, te and suane combine with different objects to derive a range of interpretations that can be categorized as literal or figurative. In this paper, I explore the ways in which te ‘to tear’ (in particular) interacts with different objects to generate an array of contextualised interpretations. The discussion of the verb and its interpretations are based on three theoretical assumptions. First, from a monosemic-bias perspective (Ruhl, 1989), I espouse a single invariant sense for te and demonstrate that all other interpretations are derived contextually. Second, I propose a three-level semantics (Wilkins and Hill, 1995) relevant for the derivation of the various interpretations of the verb. Third, I show that distinct syntactic constructions (Goldberg, 1995) in which the verb and its arguments occur are key to generating online interpretations. The analysis is based on data gathered from written literary texts, dictionaries, Bible translations, and stimulated-ethnographic interviews with native speakers. I supplement these with constructed examples based on my intuition as a native speaker of Asante-Twi.&nbsp;</p> Dorothy Pokua Agyepong (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Conceptual Metaphor Theory analysis of anishi ‘eyes’-based metaphors in Gonja <p>This article provides a Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) analysis of the metaphorical use of the body part anishi ‘eyes’ in Gonja, a North Guang Niger-Congo language spoken by some 310,000 people predominantly in the Northern and Savannah regions of Ghana. The use of body-part metaphors is an integral part of the daily repertoire of the average Gonja speaker. This article discusses how the anishi ‘eyes’-based expressions are grounded by the biological, psychological and socio-cultural functions of the eye. Prominent anishi ‘eyes’ mappings identified in the language include EMOTIONS/ATTITUDES ARE OBJECTS, ATTITUDES ARE POSSESSIONS, EYE STANDS FOR THE VIEW OR SIGHT, IDEAS AS OBJECTS, IDEAS ARE POSSESSIONS, KNOWLEDGE IS VISION, MANNER FOR ATTITUDE, PAYING ATTENTION IS SEEING, RED EYES ARE SERIOUS, UNAVAILABLE TO KNOWLEDGE IS INVISIBLE OR COVERED, and WET EYES ARE CAREFUL. Regarding the universalist and variationist dichotomy on metaphors, this article argues that, while there is evidence to support the universality of the conceptual metaphors, the importance of cross-cultural distinctiveness cannot be discounted. The data for this work is the product of elicitations from native speaker Gonja students at the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana and complemented with data based on my intuitions as a Safaliba-Gonja bilingual first language speaker. Secondary sources of data include Afari-Twako (2017) and Agyekum (2018).&nbsp;</p> Kenneth Bodua-Mango (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ‘The heart has caught me’ <p>We provide a first documentation and analysis of anger metaphors in Likpakpaln, a little-studied Mabia (Gur) language, primarily spoken in Northern Ghana. We adopt Conceptual Metaphor Theory as the analytical framework for this study. The study of emotional body-part metaphors and their lexicalisation patterns in Likpakpaln is interlaced with nominal and clausal morphosyntax as well as grammatical relations. Anger is conceptualised in terms of li?uul ‘heart’ and we identify five types of clause structures in which anger expressions occur in Likpakpaln. Further, we make out four metaphorical conceptualisations. In an areally prominent conceptualisation that we term ANGER IS HUMAN-LIKE, li?uul ‘heart’ is anthropomorphised as a human-like agent who can ‘catch’, ‘hold’, ‘kill’, or ‘eat’ a person. Other metaphorical conceptualisations are ANGER IS HEAT, AN ANGRY PERSON IS A PRESSURISED CONTAINER, and THE BODY IS A CONTAINER FOR ANGER. All in all, metaphors of anger in Likpakpaln show cross-cultural correspondences and culture-specific construals, thus providing evidence for the cultural embodied prototype theory. The Likpakpaln data also reflects a departure from some general tendencies. For instance, the coding of positive and negative emotion concepts in Likpakpaln is nuanced by the use of particular synonyms of the heart rather than by the selection of different body parts.&nbsp;</p> Abraham Kwesi Bisilki, Kofi Yakpo (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Conceptualizing MATURITY in the Mfantse dialect of Akan <p>This paper investigates metonymic expressions that express MATURITY in the Mfantse dialect of Akan. Studies in English and Akan have demonstrated that, through metonym (and metaphor), concrete concepts and experiential realities like the heartbeat, redness of the eyes, and hotness of the skin serve as grounding for the conception of abstract concepts like fear, joy, sadness, and anger (Kövecses, 1986, 1990, 1991; Agyekum, 2018). This study analyzes the features that qualify a subject for maturity among the Mfantse people which is an understudied topic. Similar to the conception of emotions, concrete concepts, as well as experiential realities, are used to express the mature state of an entity. Thus, expressions of maturity encode cognitive underpinnings that reflect the experience, culture, and the environment of the speakers of the language. The study uses a qualitative design. Fifteen Akan speakers were purposively selected for this study. We used semi-structured interviews to collect data. Findings indicate that concrete concepts, as well as experiential realities like CHANGE-OF-STATE and CROP FLORESCENCE, serve as grounding to mark the maturity of a subject. The effect of maturity is used as the vehicle to access the subject of maturity. It was concluded that, according to the Mfantse people, maturity is an innate trait that is marked by signs, transition, deeds, and relationships. This study collects, indexes, catalogues, and describes metonymic expressions of maturity, and opens up an opportunity to probe further into the role of difference in the sociolinguistic real-time use of these everyday metonyms (and metaphors) as well as the dynamism of metonymy in everyday use of the Mfantse people.&nbsp;</p> Grace Nana Aba Dawson-Ahmoah, Patrick Nana Wonkyi (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The semantic extensions of tu ‘to uproot’/‘to pull out’ in Nzema discourse <p>Nzema refers to both the language and the people who speak it. The language is spoken predominantly among the people who occupy the South-west part of the Western Region of Ghana as well as some parts of Côte d’Ivoire (Annan, 1980, 1994). Nzema forms part of the Niger-Congo Kwa language family. Many studies across languages have had their focus on the basic and extended usages of ‘eat’ and ‘drink’ (ingestion) verbs. Among such studies are Prins (1993), Newman (1997), Atintono and Adjei (2008), Aikhenvald (2009), Adjei (2013), Agyepong, Amfo and Osam (2017), and Otoo (2017). Several works, including Agyekum (2002, 2013, 2015a, 2015b, 2016) and Otoo (2018) have also examined the metaphorical extensions of human body parts and verbs of perception. In Nzema, however, studies on cultural schemas and conceptualisations are scanty. This paper, therefore, explores the basic and metaphorical interpretations of the disconnection verb, tu ‘to uproot’/‘to pull out’ in Nzema communication. The paper relies on Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980) with insights from ‘Cultural Conceptual Metaphors’ (Sharifian, 2011). Data were obtained from spontaneous natural speech contexts among the Nzema. Additional data were gathered by consulting other written sources like Nzema novels and drama books to extract some expressions involving the verb tu. Interviews with knowledgeable Indigenous speakers and my introspection as a native speaker were significantly brought to bear on this study. The paper finds that the basic sense of the verb is possibly projected to describe other abstract notions such as tu ahonle ‘heart uproot’ (to be afraid); tu ay?ne ‘uproot witchcraft’ (to drive a demon out of a&nbsp;person), tu belemgbunli ‘uproot a chief’ (to distool a chief), tu edw?k? sie (to postpone/adjourn a case), among others. The paper shows that the verb tu is ‘polysemous’, and can participate in causative/inchoative alternation. &nbsp;</p> Mohammed Yakub (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Resonating embodiment <p>The Safaliba are an Indigenous Ghanaian ethnolinguistic group of 7,000–9,000 people (Sherris, Schaefer and Mango Aworo, 2019). They mostly inhabit their traditional lands in a rural area of Ghana’s Savannah Region. There are seven towns and villages where Safaliba (the name of both their language and themselves as a people) is a dominant communicative language resource, as well as another seven towns where Safaliba as a communicative language resource is subordinate (see Fig. 1) to approximately eleven additional Indigenous Ghanaian languages (e.g., Birifor, Choruba, Dagaare, Deg, Gonja, Jula, Kamara, Lobiri, Siti, Vagla, and Waali). Safaliba is a Gur language with an expanding and vibrant, although small, grassroots literacy activity in five government primary schools, two private primary schools, and one informal adult education program. Safaliba storytellers, poets, and teenagers in the communities are using the language in booklets, newsletters, and in some experimental attempts at Safaliba Hip Hop. The purpose of this paper is to document Safaliba metaphors that have as their source domain the human body and their target domain everyday human interactions. We argue that these target domains, although abstract, transform the limits of embodiment and thereby resonate with similar materiality. For instance, if we look at the verb phrase le o? baya poo, which literally means /fall between someone’s legs/, in conceptual metaphor theory that would be the source domain. Its target domain is its figurative meaning, which for the Safaliba is /to beg someone for help or something/. The target domain resonates with components of the original embodied state of something or someone falling between the legs of another, yet is&nbsp;transformed to mean, metaphorically, an abstraction – to supplicate, beg, plead. Another example would be dibi nye?a, which as a source domain means /press chest/, and its target domain is the figurative /console, comfort/.</p> Ari Sherris, Paul Schaefer, Eden Kosiaku (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Language Endangerment David Bradley and Maya Bradley (2019) <p>Language Endangerment David Bradley and Maya Bradley (2019) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press ISBN: 9781107041134 (hardcover) ISBN: 9781107641709(paperback). Pp. 285&nbsp;</p> Nana Ama Agyeman (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Language as Symbolic Power Claire Kramsch (2020) <p>Language as Symbolic Power Claire Kramsch (2020) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press ISBN: 9781108798891 (paperback). Pp. 279&nbsp;</p> Ari Sherris (Author) Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000