Religions of South Asia https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA <p><em>RoSA</em> publishes papers by internationally respected scholars on some of the most vibrant and dynamic religious traditions of the world. It includes the latest research on distinctively South Asian or Indic religions - Hindu, Jaina, Buddhist and Sikh - religions which continue to influence the patterns of thought and ways of life of millions of people. <a href="https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/about">Learn more about this journal.</a></p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Religions of South Asia 1751-2689 <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> Guest Editorial https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20905 Karen O’Brien-Kop Lidia Wojtczak Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 1–4 1–4 10.1558/rosa.20905 The Doctrine of Perfuming (vasana) in the Yogacarabhumisastra and the Theory of Seed (bija) in the Abhidharmakosabhasya https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20906 <p>This paper examines the use of the notion of vasana in each layer of the Yogacarabhumisastra and its possible relation with the notion of bija in Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakosabhasya. Though the two terms are generally taken as synonyms, they are used differently in the two texts. The last section of the paper discusses from this perspective some of Robert Kritzer’s arguments that attempt to vindicate the influence of the Yogacarabhumisastra over the composition of the Abhidharmakosabhasya. The examination of the connotations of vasana in the Yogacarabhumisastra shows that Vasubandhu’s notion of bija in the Abhidharmakosabhasya is less likely to have been directly influenced by the Viniscayasamgrahani of the Yogacarabhumisastra. On the other hand, the positions of the early Darstantikas and Srilata mentioned in some Vaibhasika texts reveal stronger connections with Vasubandhu’s ‘Sautrantika’ views than the Yogacarabhumisastra.</p> Mingyuan Gao Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 5 31 10.1558/rosa.20906 The Criticism of Theism in the Sravakabhumi of the Yogacarabhumi https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20907 <p>According to some Indian theists, Isvara or Brahman is the absolute and the creator of the world, an idea that was criticized by Buddhists from the earliest times. This paper considers how Buddhists, particularly the Yogacara school, refute the existence of God as a creator in connection with practice. It seems that all Buddhist sects prove that no universal creator exists, using logical arguments against non-Buddhists. Previous studies have elucidated the proof of the non-existence of Isvara in the Savitarkasavicaradibhumi section of the Yogacarabhumi, the main Yogacara text. However, little attention has been paid to another section, the Sravakabhumi, in which a yoga practitioner uses logical reasoning (anumana) to deal with the denial of Isvara in the course of his or her practice of impermanence (anitya). The Sravakabhumi, probably completed at the earliest stage of compilation of the Yogacarabhumi, describes the practice that could lead to liberation according to the teaching of the Sravakayana. I demonstrate that the Sravakabhumi treats the denial of Isvara as a part of practice, not just as an intellectual exercise aimed at refuting non-Buddhists, and shows the place of discussion of this topic in Buddhist practice.</p> Keiki Nakayama Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 32–47 32–47 10.1558/rosa.20907 The Nyayasutra against the Pasupata Conception of God https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20908 <p>In this paper, I present some possible interpretations of the Nyaya theistic argument, mostly following the analysis of C. Bulcke, highlighting his original interpretation. Other interpretations, which follow the explanations in the Nyayabhasya and the Nyayavarttika, are also presented, as well as an anthropocentric reading introduced by D. H. H. Ingalls, and a sixth possible interpretation suggested by Ferenc Ruzsa. Of course, there are other scholarly accounts of the theistic sutras of the Nyayasutra, but they fall outside the scope of this paper. Before I progress to an analysis of these interpretations, I briefly discuss the development of early Nyaya literature so that we can have a better understanding of this system and the legitimacy of numerous interpretations of the very same sutras.</p> Sándor Pajor Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 48–66 48–66 10.1558/rosa.20908 Pasupata Yoga and the Art of Dying https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20909 <p>This paper researches the relation between yoga and death in the early Saiva tradition of the Pasupatas, based on three Pasupata sources: the Pasupatasutra, the Ratnatika and the Skandapurana. The paper presents an analysis and interpretation of textual passages that treat the last moment of the life of a Pasupata ascetic in order to find out whether or not his death can be interpreted as a form of ‘self-induced yogic death’. Following the analysis of the primary sources, it will become clear that yoga and death stood in a much closer relation than one might expect.</p> Arinde Jonker Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 67–88 67–88 10.1558/rosa.20909 The Pre-Saiva Mahakala of Ujjayini https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20910 <p>Ujjayini, one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites, is widely known as Siva’s city. The great deity of the famous Mahakala temple has been worshipped as its main patron until the present day. However, Phyllis Granoff has demonstrated that some early sources such as the Harivamsa (112.125–26) as well as the Brhatkathaslokasamgraha (1.4.) regard Mahakala as Siva’s gana, and therefore she concluded that Mahakala was originally a local god whom the Saivas step by step adopted at first as Siva’s gana, then as the hypostasis of the great deity himself. This article attempts to develop further Granoff’s hypothesis and tries to reconstruct, as far as possible, the figure of the so-called pre-Saiva Mahakala . In this way, it analyses the myths of the region, such as the Jaina tale of Kalaka, the Bana legends as well as the Kartavirya legends, and searches for common motives which may help to define the main characteristics of the local cult before Saivism became dominant.</p> Péter Száler Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 89–104 89–104 10.1558/rosa.20910 Malleable Mara: Transformation of a Buddhist Symbol of Evil, by Michael D. Nichols. https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20911 <p>Malleable Mara: Transformation of a Buddhist Symbol of Evil, by Michael D. Nichols. New York: State University of New York Press, 2019. xv + 251 pp. $85 (hb). ISBN 978-1-4384-7321-5.</p> Shona Stockton Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 105–107 105–107 10.1558/rosa.20911 Religion and Modernity in the Himalaya, edited by Megan Adamson Sijapati and Jessica Vantine Birkenholtz. https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20912 <p>Religion and Modernity in the Himalaya, edited by Megan Adamson Sijapati and Jessica Vantine Birkenholtz. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016. 191 pp. £104 (hb). ISBN 978-0-415-72339-8.</p> Brian K. Pennington Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 108–109 108–109 10.1558/rosa.20912 La formation du Mahavastu et la mise en place des conceptions relatives à la carrière du bodhisattva, by Vincent Tournier. https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/20913 <p>La formation du Mahavastu et la mise en place des conceptions relatives à la carrière du bodhisattva, by Vincent Tournier. Paris: École française d’Extrême-Orient, 2017. xxiv + 631 pp. €45 (pb). ISBN 978-2-85539-133-5.</p> Nathan McGovern Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 110–111 110–111 10.1558/rosa.20913 Garland of Visions: Color, Tantra, and a Material History of Indian Painting, by Jinah Kim. https://journal.equinoxpub.com/ROSA/article/view/21001 <p>Garland of Visions: Color, Tantra, and a Material History of Indian Painting, by Jinah Kim. Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2021. xv + 331 pp. $75 (hb). ISBN 978-0-520343-21-4.</p> Archishman Sarker Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 15 1 112–115 112–115 10.1558/rosa.21001