Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors among Pagans
Keywords:Paganism, environmentalism, pro-social,
AbstractPrior research has shown that Pagans emphasize a spiritual connection with nature, which is also linked to their pro-social environmental behaviors. It is this reverence for the natural world that is believed to drive their environmentalism. This project found ninety percent of the all Pagans surveyed engaged in some environmental behaviors. In looking at the inclusion of environmental issues in their spiritual practices, Wiccans were significantly less likely to state this compared to other contemporary Pagans and Druids. We found that reverence for the Earth and as well as survival of the planet and humanity were significant motivations for environmental behaviors. Additionally, the longer one had been a Pagan as well as the inclusion of environmental issues such as healing the earth and creating a cleaner environment, in their spiritual practices was also significantly correlated with engaging in environmental behaviors. Neither being Druid nor being Wiccan impacted the level of environmental behaviors. Overall this project found significant levels of engagement in environmental behavior with spiritual reverence for nature as a significant reason for these behaviors.
Barclay, Pat. “Trustworthiness and Competitive Altruism can also solve the ‘Tragedy of the Commons’.” Evolution and Human Behavior 25 (2004): 209–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.04.002
Batson, Daniel C. “Altruism and Pro-social Behavior.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, 4th edn, edited by Daniel T. Gilbert, Susan T. Fiske and Gardner Lindzey, 282–316. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Berger, Helen. A Community of Witches: Contemporary Neo-Paganism and Witchcraft. Columbia: University of Southern Carolina Press, 1999.
Berger, Helen. “Contemporary Paganism by the Numbers.” In Handbook of Contemporary Paganism, edited by Murphy Pizza and James R. Lewis, 153–70. Leiden: Brill, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004163737.i-650.48
Berger, Helen, Evan Leech and Leigh Shaffer. Voices from the Pagan Census: A National Survey of Witches and Neo-Pagans in the Unites States. Columbia: University of Southern Carolina Press, 2003.
Bloch, Jon. “Alternative Spirituality and Environmentalism.” Review of Religious Research 40, no. 1 (1998.): 55–73.
Bonewits, Isaac. How Many Pagans are There? Or Determining Our Demographics. 2005. http://www.neopagan.net/HowManyPagans.html (accessed 15 February, 2008).
Boyd, Heather Hartwig. “Christianity and the Environment in the American Public.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 38 (1999): 36–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1387582
Clarkam Christopher F., Matthew J. Kotchen and Michael R. Moore. “Internal and External Influences on Pro-Environmental Behavior: Participation in a Green Electricity Program.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 23 (2003): 237–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00105-6
Costarelli, Sandro, and Pasquale Colloca. “The Effects of Attitudinal Ambivalence on Pro-Environmental Behavioral Intentions.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 24 (2004): 279–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2004.06.001
Cottrell, Catherine A., Steven L. Neuberg and Norman P. Li. “What Do People Desire in Others? A Sociofunctional Perspective on the Importance of Different Valued Characteristics.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92 (2007): 208–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52
Cowan, David. Cyberhenge: Modern Pagans on the internet. New York: Rutledge, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203313459
DeMaris, Alfred. Regression with Social Data: Modeling Continuous and Limited. Response Variables. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471677566
Dougherty, Beth. “When Rituals Go Wrong: Angry Goddess, Recalcitrant Reclaimers.” Paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion, San Antonio, November 20–23, 2004.
Dunlap, Riley E., and Rick Scarce. “The Polls-Poll Trends: Environmental Problems and Protection.” Public Opinion Quarterly 55 (1991): 651–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/269288
Eckberg, Douglas L., and T. Jean Blocker. “Christianity, Environmentalism, and the Theoretical Problem of Fundamentalism.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 35 (1996): 343–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1386410
Ezzy, Douglas. “Popular Witchcraft and Environmentalism.” Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies 8 no. 1 (2006): 29–53.
Friedrichs, Robert W. “Alter Versus Ego: An Exploratory Assessment of Altruism.” American Sociological Review 25, no. 4 (1960): 496–508. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2092934
Gardner, Gerald. Witchcraft Today. London: Rider, 1954.
Giddens, Anthony. Modernity and Self Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.
Greeley, Andrew. “Religion and Attitudes Toward the Environment.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32 (1993): 19–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1386911
Griskevicius, Vladas, Joshua M. Tybur, Jill M. Sundie, Robert B. Cialdini, Geoffrey F. Miller and Douglas T. Kenric. “Blatant Benevolence and Conspicuous Consumption: When Romantic Motives Elicit Strategic Costly Signals.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93 (2007): 85–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206
Griskevicius, Vladas, Joshua M. Tybur and Bram Van den Bergh. “Going Green to Be Seen: Status, Reputation, and Conspicuous Conservation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (2010): 392–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017346
Gottlieb, Roger. A Greener Faith: Religious Environmentalism and Our Planet’s Future. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176483.001.0001
Guth, James L., John C. Green, Lyman A. Kellstedt and Corwin E. Smidt. “Faith and the Environment: Religious Beliefs and Attitudes on Environmental Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 39 (1995): 364–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2111617
Harris, Adrian. “The Power of Place: Protest Site Pagans.” European Journal of Ecopsychology 2 (2011): 1–27.
Harvey, Granham. Listening People, Speaking Earth. Contemporary Paganism. London: Hurst and Co., 1997.
Hayes, Bernadette C., and Manussos Marangudakis. “Religion and Attitudes towards Nature in Britain.” British Journal of Sociology 52 (2001): 139–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071310020023073
Iredale, Wendy, Mark Van Vugt and Robin Dunbar. “Showing off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal.” Evolutionary Psychology 6 (2008): 386–92.
Jensen, Gary, and Ashley Thompson. “‘Out of the Broom Closet’: The Social Ecology of American Wicca.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47, no. 4 (2008): 753–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00439.x
Jouvet, Pierre-André, Philippe Michel and Jean-Pierre Vidal. “Intergenerational Altruism and the Environment.” The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 102, no. 1 (2000): 135–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9442.00188
Kalafatis, Stavros P., Michael Pollard, Robert East and Markos Tsogos. “Green Marketing and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior: A Cross-Market Examination.” Journal of Consumer Marketing 16 (1999): 441–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/07363769910289550
Kanagy, Conrad, and Fern K. Willits. “A Greening of Religion? Some Evidence from a Pennsylvania Sample.” Social Science Quarterly 74 (1993): 674–83.
Kearns, Laurel. “Noah’s Ark goes to Washington: A Profile of Evangelical Environmentalism.” Social Compass 44 (1997): 349–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/ 003776897044003004
Kearns, Laurel. “Saving the Creation: Christian Environmentalism in the United States.” Sociology of Religion 57 (1996): 55–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3712004
Kondylis, Panagiotis. The Enlightenment within the Rationalism of Modern Times. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1981.
Kosmin, Barry A., Egon Mayer and Ariela Kaysar. American Religious Identification Survey, 2001. New York: The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 2001. http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris.pdf (accessed 15 March, 2010).
Letcher, Andy. “Eco-Paganism.” In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Taylor. London: Continuum International, 2005.
Lewis, James R. “The Pagan Explosion: An Overview of Select Census and Survey Data.” In The New Generation of Witches: Teenage Witchcraft in Contemporary Culture, edited by Hanna Johnston and Peg Aloi, 13–24. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007.
Miller, Geoffrey F. “Sexual Selection for Moral Virtues.” Quarterly Review of Biology 82 (2007): 97–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/517857
National Gardening Association. The Impact of Home and Community Gardening In America, 2009. http://www.gardenresearch.com/files/2009-Impact-of-Gardening-in-America-White-Paper.pdf (accessed 12 July, 2011).
Nollman, Jim. Spiritual Ecology: A Guide to Reconnecting with Nature. New York, Bantam, 1990.
Owens, Ann, and Julio Videras. “Culture and Public Goods: The Case of Religion and the Voluntary Provision of Environmental Quality.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 54 (2007): 162–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2007.04.001
Popp, David. “Altruism and the Demand for Environmental Quality.” Land Economics 77 no. 3 (2001): 339–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3147128
Reed, Susan. An Introduction to Modern Druid Groups, 2004. http://www.nachtanz.org/SReed/mod_druids1.html (accessed 25 December, 2010).
Roberts, Gilbert. “Competitive Altruism: From reciprocity to the Handicap Principle.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 265 (1998): 427–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1998.0312
Sagan, Carl. Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House, 1997.
Schultz, P. Wesley. “The Structure of Environmental Concern, Concern for Self, Other People and the Biosphere.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 21 (2001): 327–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2001.0227
Schultz, P. Wesley, Chris Shriver, Jennifer J. Tabanico and Azar M. Khazian. “Implicit Connections with Nature.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 24 (2004): 31–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(03)00022-7
Serpell, James. Contemporary Animals. London; Blackwell Press, 1986.
Smith Oboler, Regina. “Nature Religion As A Cultural System? Sources of Environmentalist Actions and Rhetoric in a Contemporary Pagan Community.” Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies 6 no. 1 (2004): 86–106.
Stern, Paul C., Thomas Dietz and Linda Kalof. “Value Orientations, Gender, and Environmental Concern.” Environment and Behavior 25 (1993): 322–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916593255002
Stiff, Chris. E., and Mark Van Vugt. “The Power of Reputations: The Role of Third Party Information in the Admission of New Group Members.” Group Dynamics 12 (2008): 155–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-26220.127.116.11
Urien, Bertrand, and William Kilbourne. “Generativity and Self-Enhancement Values in Eco-Friendly Behavioral Intentions and Environmentally Responsible Consumption Behavior.” Psychology and Marketing 28, no. 1 (2010): 69–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20381
Van Vugt, Mark, Gilbert Roberts and Charlie Hardy. “Competitive Altruism: Development of Reputation-Based Cooperation in Groups.” In Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, edited by R.I.M. Dunbar and Lousie Barrett, 531–40. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Warburton, Jeni A., and Margarete B. Gooch. “Stewardship Volunteering by Older Australians: The Generative Response.” Local Environment 12 (2007): 43–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549830601098230
White, Lynn. “The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis.” Science 155 no. 3767 (1967): 1203–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.155.3767.1203
Woodrum, Eric, and Michelle J. Wolkomir. “Religious Effects on Environmentalism.” Sociological Spectrum 17 (1997): 223–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02732173.1997.9982161
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.