Modern Paganism as a Legitimating Framework for Post-Materialist Values
Keywords:post-materialist value change, human values, modern paganism, new religions
AbstractIn this article I argue that the emergence of new religious movements may be a result of an adaptation of world-views to the changing needs of individuals in post-industrial societies. I explore the relation of the emergence of new religious movements and changes in social values. I compare value priorities of people who identify themselves as Pagans and those of a sample of the Open University students, who represent the United Kingdom's mainstream population. The Pagans were found to emphasise post-materialist values significantly more than the OU students. Individuals’ values were also found to be related to their view of interpersonal relations. People who have egalitarian view of others endorse post-materialist values with emphasis on universalism, while people with a competitive view of interpersonal relations endorse post-materialist values with emphasis on achievement. Furthermore, while the majority of Pagans have similar value priorities, minority sub-groups were found with significantly different priorities.
———. Postmodern Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
Bauman, Zygmunt, and Tim May. Thinking Sociologically. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2001.
Berger, Peter L. “The Cultural Dynamics of Globalization.” In Many Globalizations: Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World. Edited by Peter L. Berger and Samuel P. Huntington, 1-16. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Braithwaite, Valerie, Toni Makkai, and Yvonne Pittelkow. “Inglehart’s MaterialismPost Materialism Concept: Clarifying the Dimensionality Debate Through Rokeach’s Model of Social Values.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26, no. 17 (1996): 1536-1555. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1996.tb00085.x
Brewer, Marilynn B., and Ya-Ru Chen. “Where (Who) Are Collectives in Collectivism? Toward Conceptual Clarification of Individualism and Collectivism.” Psychological Review 114, no. 1 (2007): 133-151. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.114.1.133
Brislin, Richard W. “Translation and Content Analysis of Oral and Written Materials.” In Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Edited by Harry C. Triandis and John W. Berry, 389-444. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1980.
Clifton, Chas S., and Graham Harvey, eds. The Paganism Reader. London: Routledge, 2003.
Costa, Patricia, and Robin Goodwin. “The Role of Religion in Human Values: A Case Study.” Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion & Education 27, no. 3 (2006): 341-346.
Cukur, Cem Safak, Maria Rosario T. De Guzman, and Gustavo Carlo. “Religiosity, Values, and Horizontal and Vertical Individualism-Collectivism: A Study of Turkey, the United States, and the Philippines.” Journal of Social Psychology 144, no. 6 (2004): 613-634. doi:10.3200/SOCP.144.6.613-634
Dawson, Lorne L. “The Sociocultural Significance of Modern New Religious Movements.” In The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements, edited by James R. Lewis, 68-98. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
De Vaus, David A. Surveys in Social Research. London: Routledge, 2002.
Featherstone, Mike. “Consumer Culture, Postmodernism, and Global Disorder.” In Religion and Global Order, edited by Roland Robertson and William R Garret, 133-160. New York: Paragon House, 1991.
Fontaine, Johnny R. J., Bart Duriez, Patrick Luyten, Jozef Corveleyn, and Dirk Hutsebaut. “Consequences of a Multidimensional Approach to Religion for the Relationship Between Religiosity and Value Priorities.” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 15, no. 2 (2005): 123-144. doi:10.1207/ s15327582ijpr1502_2
Green, Eva G. T., Jean-Claude Deschamps, and Dario Páez. “Variation of Individualism and Collectivism Within and Between 20 Countries: A Typological Analysis.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36, no. 3 (2005): 321-339. doi:10.1177/0022022104273654
Habermas, Jürgen. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
———. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge: Polity, 1990.
Hair, Joseph F., William C. Black, Barry J. Babin, and Rolph E. Anderson. Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2008.
Hardman, Charlotte, and Graham Harvey. Pagan Pathways: A Complete Guide to the Ancient Earth Traditions. London: Thorsons, 1996.
Harvey, Graham. Listening People, Speaking Earth: Contemporary Paganism. London: C. Hurst, 1997.
Herriot, Peter. Religious Fundamentalism: Global, Local, and Personal. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.
Huismans, Sipke, and Shalom H. Schwartz. “Religiosity and Value Priorities: A Study of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews.” Innovations in Cross-Cultural Psychology 34 (2003) 341-52.
Inglehart, Ronald. Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.
———. “The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies.” American Political Science Review 65, no. 4 (1971): 991-1017.
———. The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles Among Western Publics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Christian Welzel. Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Joyce, Richard. The Evolution of Morality. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006.
Kohlberg, Lawrence. The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984.
Krebs, Dennis L. “The Evolution of Moral Dispositions in the Human Species.” In Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Reproductive Behavior. Edited by Dori LeCroy and Peter Moller. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 2000. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.112.3.629
Krebs, Dennis L, and Kathy Denton. “Toward a More Pragmatic Approach to Morality: A Critical Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Model.” Psychological Review 112, no. 3 (2005): 629-649.
Lindeman, Marjaana, and Markku Verkasalo. “Measuring Values with the Short Schwartz’s Value Survey.” Journal of Personality Assessment 85, no. 2 (2005): 170- 178. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8502_09
Maccoby, Eleanor E. “Historical Overview of Socialization Research and Theory.” In Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research. Edited by Joan E. Grusec and Paul D. Hastings. New York: Guilford Press, 2008.
Maslow, Abraham H. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.
Moshman, David. Adolescent Psychological Development: Rationality, Morality, and Identity. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005.
Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Roccas, Sonia, and Shalom H. Schwartz. “Church-State Relations and the Association of Religiosity with Values: A Study of Catholics in Six Countries.” Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science 31, no. 4 (1997): 356-375.
Roccas, Sonia, Lilach Sagiv, Shalom H. Schwartz, and Ariel Knafo. “The Big Five Personality Factors and Personal Values.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28, no. 6 (2002): 789-801. doi:10.1177/0146167202289008
Rokeach, Milton. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values: A Theory of Organization and Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1968.
———. The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press, 1973.
Saroglou, Vassilis, Vanessa Delpierre, and Rebecca Dernelle. “Values and Religiosity: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Schwartz’s Model.” Personality and Individual Differences 37, no. 4 (2004): 721-734. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2003.10.005
Schuman, Howard, and Jacqueline Scott. “Generations and Collective Memories.” American Sociological Review 54, no. 3 (1989): 359-381. doi:10.2307/2095611
Schwartz, Shalom H. “Beyond Individualism/Collectivism: New Cultural Dimensions of Values.” In Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method, and Applications. Cross-Cultural Research and Methodology, edited by Uichol Kim, Harry C. Triandis, Sang-Chin Choi and Gene Yoon. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1994.
———. “A Proposal for Measuring Value Orientations Across Nations.” In ESS Core Questionnaire Development. London: Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University, 2001. http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org.
———. Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries. San Diego: Academic Press, 1992.
Schwartz, Shalom H., and Sipke Huismans. “Value Priorities and Religiosity in Four Western Religions.” Social Psychology Quarterly 58, no. 2 (1995): 88-107. doi:10.2307/2787148
Schwartz, Shalom H., Gila Melech, Arielle Lehmann, Steven Burgess, Mari Harris, and Vicki Owens. “Extending the Cross-Cultural Validity of the Theory of Basic Human Values with a Different Method of Measurement.” Journal of CrossCultural Psychology 32, no. 5 (2001): 519-542. doi:10.1177/0022022101032005001
Sutcliffe, Steven, and Marion Bowman. Beyond New Age: Exploring Alternative Spirituality. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.
Taniguchi, Masaki. “A Time Machine: New Evidence of Post-Materialist Value Change.” International Political Science Review 27, no. 4 (2006): 405-425. doi:10.1177/0192512106067362
Tashakkori, Abbas, and Charles Teddlie. Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. London: Sage Publications, 1998.
Triandis, Harry C. Individualism & Collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995.
Triandis, Harry C., and Michele J. Gelfand. “Converging Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism.” Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 74, no. 1 (1998): 118-128. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52
Wilson, Marc Stewart. “A Social-Value Analysis of Postmaterialism.” Journal of Social Psychology 145, no. 2 (2005): 209-224. doi:10.3200/SOCP.145.2.209-224
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.