Pentecostals and Development in Nigeria and Zambia
Community Organizing as a Response to Poverty and Violence
Keywords:Pentecostalism, community organising, Nigeria, Zambia, social capital, integral mission
Faith-based community organising is becoming increasingly recognized as an effective form of democratic engagement and community development, especially among low-to-middle income urban communities in the United States and Britain. This article focuses on two African Pentecostal initiatives with no formal links to Western community organising networks: the Young Ambassadors for Community Peace and Inter-Faith Foundation in Nigeria and the Jubilee Centre in Zambia. In both countries, neoliberal economics, associated with diminished public sectors and decreased government interventionism, has taken its toll, resulting in increased levels of unemployment, poverty and violent conflict. In response, these initiatives are engaged in citizen mobilization through training church and community leaders, and empowering ordinary people to improve the quality of life in their communities. While faith-based community organising is relatively rare in Nigeria and Zambia, the case studies discussed in this article show the potential of this form of intervention for generating social capital and addressing the dual crises of poverty and violence that assail the African continent. The article assesses the added value of Pentecostal beliefs and practices in relation to civic engagement and development.
Abdullahi, A. A. and L. Saka. 2007. “Ethno-religious and Political Conflicts: Threat to Nigeria Nascent Democracy”. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 9.3: 21–36.
Adesoji, A. 2010. “The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria”. Africa Spectrum 45: 95–108.
Avert. 2014. “HIV & AIDS in Zambia”. Available at www.avert.org/hiv-aids-zambia.htm (accessed 23 June 2015).
Baker, C. 2009. “Blurred Encounters? Religious Literacy, Spiritual Capital and Language”. In A. Dinham, R. Furbey and V. Lowndes (eds), Faith in the Public Realm: Controversies, Policies and Practices. Bristol: Policy Press: 105–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781847420305.003.0006
Billy Graham Center. 1997. “Oral History Interview with Lawrence Temfwe – Collection 549”. Available at www2.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/549.htm (accessed 27 March 2014).
Boran, A. 2010. “Introduction”. In A. Boran (ed.), Poverty: Malaise of Development? Chester: Chester Academic Press: 1–32.
Bretherton, L. 2010. Christianity and Contemporary Politics. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell,
Brouwer, S., P. Gifford and S. D. Rose. 1996. Exporting the American Gospel: Global Christian Fundamentalism. London: Routledge.
Burgess, R. 2008. Nigeria’s Christian Revolution: The Civil War Revival and its Pentecostal Progeny (1967–2004). Carlisle: Regnum/Paternoster.
—. 2015. “Pentecostalism and Democracy in Nigeria: Electoral Politics, Prophetic Practices, and Cultural Reformation”. Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions 18.3: 38–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/nr.2015.18.3.38
— and N. M’Fundisi. 2012. “Pentecostal Spiritualities, Inter-religious Relations and Civic Engagement: a Comparative Study of Nigeria and Zambia”. Unpublished report, 30 October. Los Angeles, CA: Pentecostal and Charismatic Research Initiative (PCRI), Center for Religion and Civic Culture, University of Southern California.
Campbell, D. E. 2004. “Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement”. Political Behavior 26.2: 155–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:POBE.0000035961.78836.5f
Christian Reformed Churches of Australia. 2006. “Micah Challenge – A Statement Endorsed by the Synod of the CRCA in May ’06”. Available at wdrw.crca.org.au/pdf/micah.doc (accessed 24 June 2015).
Clarke, M. 2011. Development and Religion: Theory and Practice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9780857930736
—. 2014. “Friend or Foe? Finding Common Ground between Development and Pentecostalism: New Insights into Old Questions”. Paper presented at Pentecostalism and Development, GloPent Conference, 5–6 September.
Craig, G. and M. Mayo (eds). 1995. Community Empowerment: A Reader in Participation and Development. London: Zed Books.
Deneulin, S. and C. Rakodi. 2011. “Revisiting Religion: Development Studies Thirty Years On”. World Development 39.1: 45–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.05.007
EFZ. 2012. “Our Fellowship”. Available at www.efzsecretariat.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=70&Itemid=68 (accessed 31 December 2014).
Falola, T. and M. M. Heaton. 2008. A History of Nigeria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511819711
Freeman, D. 2012. “The Pentecostal Ethic and the Spirit of Development”. In D. Freeman (ed.), Pentecostalism and Development: Churches, NGOs and Social Change in Africa. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 1–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781137017253.0005
Freston, P. 2001. Evangelicals and Politics in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511487705
Gifford, P. 1991. The New Crusaders. Christianity and the New Right in Southern Africa. London: Pluto.
—. 1994. “Some Recent Developments in African Christianity”. African Affairs 93.373: 513–34.
—. 1998. African Christianity: Its Public Role. London: Hurst & Co.
—. 2004. Ghana’s New Christianity: Pentecostalism in a Globalising African Economy. London: Hurst & Co.
Gittel, R. and A. Vidal. 1998. Community Organising: Building Social Capital as a Development Strategy. London: Sage Publications.
Good, K. 1989. “Debt and the One-Party State in Zambia”. Journal of Modern African Studies 27.2: 297–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022278X00000495
Hackett, R. I. J. 2000. “Religious Freedom and Religious Conflict in Africa”. In M. Silk (ed.), Religion on the News Agenda. Washington, DC: Pew Program for Religion and Media: 102–19.
Hanson, M. and J. J. Hentz. 1999. “Neocolonialism and Neoliberalism in South Africa and Zambia”. Political Science Quarterly 114.3: 479–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2658207
Haynes, J. 2008. Development Studies. Cambridge: Polity.
Higazi, A. 2011. The Jos Crisis: A Recurrent Nigerian Tragedy. Discussion paper no. 2, January. Abuja: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.
Holy Trinity Church, Cambridge. Undated. “Supporting World Mission”. Available at www.htcambridge.org.uk/supportingworldmission.htm (accessed 26 April 2015).
HRW. 2006. “‘They Do Not Own This Place’: Government Discrimination Against ‘Non- Indigenes’ in Nigeria”. Human Rights Watch 18.3: 1–64.
Imo, C. 2008. “Evangelicals, Muslims, and Democracy: With Particular Reference to the Declaration of Sharia in Northern Nigeria”. In Ranger (2008a): 37–66.
Jubilee Centre. 2006. Memorandum of Understanding: Engaging Politicians in Community Development. November. Ndola: Jubilee Centre. Available at http://mczambia.files.wordpress.com/2007/02/jc-case-study-memorandum-of-understanding.pdf (accessed 15 July 2014).
—. 2007. Info Sheet: Jubilee Centre Short Term Learning Teams (STLT). June. Available at www.jubileecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/STLT-Info-Sheet.pdf (accessed 25 April 2015).
—. 2010a. “Jubilee Centre Signs Borehole Deal”. 22 July. Available at www.jubileecentre.org/2010/07/jubilee-centre-signs-borehole-deal (accessed 1 January 2015).
—. 2010b. 2010 Annual Progress Report. Ndola: Jubilee Centre.
—. 2011. “Global Leadership Summit”. Available at www.jubileecentre.org/2011/10/global-leadership-summit (accessed 5 May 2015).
—. 2012. “Thank You for Food Packs and Seeds”. 6 November. Available at www.jubileecentre.org/2013/11/thank-you-for-food-packs-and-seeds (accessed 5 May 2015).
—. 2013. “Newsletter”. October–November. Available at www.jubileecentre.org/2013/11/october-november-newsletter (accessed 14 January 2015).
—. Undated a. “Five-Year Strategic Plan 2006–2011”. Available at www.jubileecentre.org/about/five-year-strategic-plan (accessed 2 January 2015).
—. Undated b. “History”. Available at www.jubileecentre.org/about/history (accessed 2 January 2015).
Kalu, O. U. 2008. African Pentecostalism: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195340006.001.0001
Krause, J. 2012. A Deadly Cycle: Ethno-religious Conflict in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Working paper. Geneva: Geneva Declaration Secretariat.
Land, S. J. 1993. Pentecostal Spirituality: A Passion for the Kingdom. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.
Martin, D. 1992. “Faiths Escaping the Hierarchies”. Times Literary Supplement 18 December: 22.
Maxwell, D. 2006. African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism and the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement. Oxford: James Currey,
Mayo, M. and G. Craig. 1995. “Community Participation and Empowerment: The Human Face of Structural Adjustment or Tools for Democratic Transformation?”. In Craig and Mayo (1995): 1–11.
McCain, D., M. Gaiya and K. Korb. 2014, “Salt and Light or Salt and Pepper: Views on Ethno-Religious Violence and Peace among Pentecostals in Nigeria”. Pneuma 36: 100–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15700747-03601007
M’Fundisi, N. 2011. “From Stigma to Intervention: Pentecostals in the Fight against HIV/ AIDS in Zambia and the Subsequent Effects on the Family”. PentecoStudies 10.2: 215–38.
—. 2014. “Pentecostal and Charismatic Spiritualities and Civic Engagement in Zambia (1964–2012)”. PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.
Micah Challenge. Undated a. “Vision, Mission and Values”. Available at www.micahchallenge.org/our-vision (accessed 18 August 2009).
—. Undated b. “Micah Network Declaration on Integral Mission”. Available at www.micahnetwork.org/integral-mission (accessed 13 May 2013).
Micah Challenge Zambia. 2008. Mobilising Christians Against Poverty: Toolkit for District Steering Committees. Ndola: Micah Challenge Zambia. Available at http://mczambia.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/mcz-toolkit.pdf (accessed 25 October 2014).
—. Undated. “Global Leaders Forum”. Available at https://mczambia.wordpress.com/2008/02/08/global-leaders-forum/ (accessed 5 May 2015).
Micah Network. 2001. “Micah Declaration on Integral Mission”. September. Available at www.micahnetwork.org/sites/default/files/doc/page/mn_integral_mission_declaration_en.pdf (accessed 23 June 2015).
—. 2015. “Who We Are”. Available at http://micahnetwork.org/who-we-are (accessed 20 June 2015).
Miller, D. E. and T. Yamamori. 2007. Global Pentecostalism: The New Face of Christian Social Engagement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Mohammed, A. S. 2005. The Impact of Conflict on the Economy: The Case of Plateau State of Nigeria. London: ODI. Available at www.odi.org/events/docs/122.pdf (accessed 23 December 2014).
National Population Commission of Nigeria. 2015. “Nigeria Over 167 Million Population: Implications and Challenges”. Available at www.population.gov.ng/index.php/84-news/latest/106-nigeria-over-167-million-population-implications-and-challenges (accessed 8 August 2013).
Ogbonnaya, J. 2012. “Religion and Sustainable Development in Africa: the Case of Nigeria”. International Journal of African Catholicism 3.2: 1–22.
Ojo, M. 2007. “Pentecostal Movements, Islam and the Contest for Public Space in Northern Nigeria”. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 18.2: 175–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09596410701214043
Ome, A. 2011. “Something Good Out of Jos”. Sahara Reporters 7 January. Available at http://saharareporters.com/article/something-good-out-jos (accessed 28 March 2014).
ONE. 2008. “Good News for the Poor: Christians Call Leaders to Bold Action on Poverty”. 25 September. Available at www.one.org/us/2008/09/25/good-news-for-the-poorchristians- call-leaders-to-bold-action-on-poverty/ (accessed 3 May 2015).
Orji, N. 2011. “Faith-Based Aid to People Affected by Conflict in Jos, Nigeria: An Analysis of the Role of Christian and Muslim Organisations”. Journal of Refugee Studies 24.3: 479–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jrs/fer034
Osaghae, E. E. 1998. Nigeria since Independence: Crippled Giant. London: Hurst & Co.
Ostien, P.2009. “Jonah Jang and the Jasawa: Ethno-Religious Conflict in Jos, Nigeria”. Muslim–Christian Relations in Africa August: 1–42.
Paden, J. N. 2008. Faith and Politics in Nigeria: Nigeria as a Pivotal State in the Muslim World. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace,
Pam, Y. and K. Korb. 2011. Fighting for Peace: Learning from the Peace Heroes Among Us. Jos: FAB Educational Books.
Paul, S. 1987. Community Participation in Development Projects: The World Bank Experience. World Bank discussion paper 6. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Pew Research Center. 2006. Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals. Washington, DC: Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
Phiri, I. A. 2008. “President Frederick Chiluba and Zambia: Evangelicals and Democracy in a ‘Christian Nation’”. In Ranger (2008a): 95–130.
PICO International. Undated. “PICO-Rwanda”. Available at www.picointernational.org/rwanda.
Poloma, M. M. and R. W. Hood Jr. 2008. Blood and Fire: Godly Love in a Pentecostal Emerging Church. New York: New York University Press.
Putnam, R. D. 1995. “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital”. Journal of Democracy 6: 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.1995.0002
—. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Ranger, T. O. (ed.). 2008a. Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
—. 2008b. “Introduction: Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa”. In Ranger (2008a): 3–35.
St Nicolas Church. 2014. Justice, Peace and the Environment. Earley: St Nicolas Church. Available at www.stnicolas.org.uk/SocialJusticeMay2014.pdf (accessed 26 April 2015)
Shannahan, C. 2013. A Theology of Community Organising: Power to the People. Abingdon: Routledge.
Smith, D. J. 2007. A Culture of Corruption. Everyday Deception and Popular Discontent in Nigeria. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Smith, R. D. 1999. “Missionaries, Church Movements, and the Shifting Religious Significance of the State in Zambia”. Journal of Church and State 41.3: 525–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jcs/41.3.525
Stott, J. 1975a. Christian Mission in the Modern World. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
—. 1975b. The Lausanne Covenant: An Exposition and Commentary Lausanne. Occasional paper 3. Lausanne: Lausanne Commitee for World Evangelization. Available at www.lausanne.org/content/lop/lop-3 (accessed 3 January 2015).
Temfwe, L. 2004. “Integral Mission Africa: The Zambian Context”. Paper presented at the Micah Africa Workshop, 20–23 September. Available at www.micahnetwork.org/sites/default/files/doc/library/micah_saf_temfwe_plenary.pdf (accessed 24 June 2015).
—. 2005. “Micah Challenge”. Sojourners Magazine July. Available at http://sojo.net/magazine/2005/07/micah-challenge (accessed 30 April 2013).
—. 2013. “How the Church in Africa is Hurting the Poor”. Monday Issue 1 October. Available at www.jubileecentre.org/2013/10/how-the-church-in-africa-is-hurtingthe-poor (accessed 1 October 2014).
Ukah, A. 2009. “Contesting God. Nigerian Pentecostals and their Relations with Islam and Muslims”. In D. Westerlund (ed.), Global Pentecostalism: Encounters with Other Religious Traditions. London: I. B. Tauris: 92–114.
UNDP. 2013. The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Human Development Report 2013. New York: UNDP.
Walker, A. 2012. What is Boko Haram?. Special report 308, June. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Warren, M. R. 2009. “Community Organising in Britain: The Political Engagement of Faith-Based Social Capital”. City and Community 8.2: 99–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6040.2009.01276.x
Winter, E. and L. Woodhead. 2014. “Micah Challenge”: An Evangelical Experiment in Development Advocacy. Report and evaluation, 8 September. Lancaster: Lancaster University. Available at www.micahchallenge.org/upload/resources/media_items/MC_report_030414.pdf.
Wood, R. L. 2002. Faith in Action. Religion, Race and Democratic Organising in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
— and M. R. Warren. 2002. “A Different Face of Faith-Based Politics: Social Capital and Community Organising in the Public Arena”. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 22.9–10: 6–54.
YACPIF. 2010. “YACPIF Assists in Peacemaking after Christmas Eve Bombs”. 31 December. Available at http://yacpif.wordpress.com/category/press-releases (accessed 11 June 2011).
—. 2011. “Celebrating a Peaceful Plateau State Election”. 4 May. Available at http://yacpif.wordpress.com/2011/05/04/celebrating-a-peaceful-plateau-state-election (accessed 29 November 2013).
—. Undated. “About”. Available at https://yacpif.wordpress.com/about (accessed 23 June 2015).
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.