Teaching Subjective Construal and Related Constructions with SCOBAs
Concept Learning as a Foundation for Japanese Language Development
Keywords:Japanese-as-a-second-language (JSL), concept-based language instruction (C-BLI), concept-based instruction (CBI), schema of a complete orienting basis of action (SCOBA), subjective construal, non-use of ‘I’, motion verbs, meanings of give, psychological predicates
Japanese and English have substantial typological differences, including different construal patterns. Construal patterns reflect linguistic framing of events, more objectively or more subjectively, depending on whether the speaker is understood as a separate part of the scene or as merged with the scene. English frames events using objective construal more often than subjective construal; Japanese overwhelmingly prefers subjective construal. Understanding construal is critical for Japanese L2 learners, yet overlooked in Japanese pedagogy. This paper considers how SCOBAs (Schema of a Complete Orienting Basis of an Action) can be used in Concept-Based Language Instruction (C-BLI) to teach construal. The first SCOBAs introduced visualize construal concepts; subsequent SCOBAs depict how Japanese subjective construal relates to other constructions, including the non-use of ‘I’, motion verbs, verbs meaning ‘give’, and psychological predicates. We also discuss approaches to promoting internalization of the concepts via a variety of dialogic tasks and application exercises.
Achard, M. (2008). Teaching construal: Cognitive pedagogical grammar. In P. Robinson and N. Ellis (Eds), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition, 432–456. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Achard, M. (2018). Teaching usage and concepts: Toward a cognitive pedagogical grammar. In A. Tyler, L. Huang, and H. Jan (Eds), What is Applied Cognitive Linguistics?: Answer from Current SLA Research, 31–45. Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110572186-002
Arakawa, Y. and Moriyama, S. (2009). Nihongo Kyooshi no Tame no Ninchi Gengogaku. [An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Linguistics for Language Teachers.] Bonjinsha: Tokyo.
Banno, E., Ikeda, Y. Ohno, Y. Shinagawa, C. and Tokashiki, K. (2020). Genki: An Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese. 3rd Edition. Tokyo: The Japan Times.
Buescher, K. and Strauss, S. (2015). A cognitive linguistic analysis of French prepositions à, dans, and en and a sociocultural theoretical approach to teaching them. In K. Masuda, C. Arnett and A. Labarca (Eds), Cognitive Linguistics and Sociocultural Theory: Applications for Second Language and Foreign Language Teaching, 155–181. Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614514442-009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614514442-009
Bybee, J. (2008). Usage-based grammar and second language acquisition. In P. Robinson and N. Ellis (Eds), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition, 216–213. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ching, J. C., Lai-Hung, J., Lau, D. Y., Lau, J. K., Lau, N., Matsumoto, A., Sakamoto, K., and Suzuki, Y. (2016). Terrace House: Aloha State. Netflix.
Croft, W. and Cruse, A. (2004). Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803864 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803864
Gal’perin, P. Y. (1957/1969). Stage in the development of mental acts. In M. Cole and I. Maltzman (Eds), A Handbook of Contemporary Soviet Psychology, 249–272. New York: Basic Books.
Gal’perin, P. Y. (1978/1992). Stage-by-stage formation as a method of psychological investigation. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology 30(4): 60–80. https://doi.org/10.2753/RPO1061-0405300460 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/RPO1061-0405300460
Gánem-Gutiérrez, G. A. and Harun, H. (2011). Verbalisation as a mediational tool for understanding tense-aspect marking in English: An application of Concept-based Instruction. Language Awareness 20(2): 99–119. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2010.551125 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2010.551125
Haenen, J. (2001). Outlining the teaching-learning process: Piotr Gal’perin’s contribution. Learning and Instruction 11(2): 157–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(00)00020-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(00)00020-7
Hatasa, Y., Hatasa, K. and Makino, S. (2015). Nakama 1: Introductory Japanese: Communication, Culture, Context. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Ikegami, Y. (1991). ‘DO-language’ and ‘BECOME-language’: Two contrasting types of linguistic representation. In Y. Ikegami (Ed.), The Empire of Signs: Semiotic Essays on Japanese Culture, 285–326. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/fos.8.14ike DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/fos.8.14ike
Ikegami, Y. (2005). Indices of a ‘subjectivity-prominent’ language: Between cognitive linguistics and linguistic typology. Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics 3: 132–164. https://doi.org/10.1075/arcl.3.08ike DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/arcl.3.08ike
Ikegami, Y. (2008). Subjective construal as a ‘fashion of speaking’ in Japanese. In G. M. D. L. Gómez, J. L. A. Mackenzie, and Á. E. M. González (Eds), Current Trends in Contrastive Linguistics: Functional and Cognitive Perspectives, 227–250. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/sfsl.60.14ike DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/sfsl.60.14ike
Ikegami, Y. (2016). Subject-object contrast (shukaku-tairitsu) and subject-object merger (shukaku-gouitsu) in ‘thinking for speaking’: A typology of the speaker’s preferred stances of construal across languages and its implications for language teaching. In K. Kabata and K. Toratani (Eds), Cognitive-Functional Approaches to the Study of Japanese as a Second Language, 301–318. Boston and Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614515029-014
Ikegami, Y. and Moriya, M. (Eds). (2010). Shizenna Nihongo o Oshieru Tameni: Ninchi Gengogaku o Fumaete [Cognitive Linguistics Can Help You to Master Natural Japanese]. Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo.
Ishiyama, O. (2016). Friendly and respectful politeness: A functional analysis of L2 utterances. In K. Kabata and K. Toratani (Eds), Cognitive-Functional Approaches to the Study of Japanese as Second Language, 33–56. Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614515029-005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614515029-005
Kuno, S. (1978). Danwa no Bumpoo [Grammar of Discourse]. Tokyo: Taishuukan Shoten.
Kanaya, T. (2004). Eigo Nimo Shugo wa Nakatta [English used to be a subject-less language]. Tokyo: Koodansha Shoten Sensho Meche.
Lantolf, J. and Poehner, M. (2014). Sociocultural Theory and the Pedagogical Imperative in L2 Education. New York and London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203813850 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203813850
Langacker, R. (1987). Foundation of Cognitive Grammar, Volume 1: Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Langacker, R. (2000). A dynamic usage-based model. In M. Barlow and S. Kemmer (Eds), Usage-based Models of Language, 163. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications.
Langacker, R. (2008). Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.001.0001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.001.0001
Language Testing International (n.d.). How long does it take to become proficient? https://www.languagetesting.com/how-long-does-it-take. Accessed October 7, 2020.
Masuda, K. (2008). Iwayuru yokaku shugo jyutsugo no ninchi gengogaku teki koosatsu: yoohoo kiban apuroochi kara no bunseki. [A usage-based approach to Japanese ‘dative subject’ predicates]. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cognitive Linguistics Association, 127–136.
Masuda, K. and Labarca, A. (2015). Schematic diagrams use and languaging quality in learning Japanese polysemous particles ni and de. In K. Masuda, C. Arnett and A. Labarca (Eds), Cognitive Linguistics and Sociocultural Theory: Applications for Second Language and Foreign Language Teaching, 203–232. Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614514442-011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614514442-011
Masuda, K. and Labarca, A. (2018a). A usage-based approach to presenting the polysemous particles ni and de in JFL instruction. In K. Masuda (Ed.), Cognitive Linguistics and Japanese Pedagogy: A Usage-based Approach to Language Learning and Instruction, 129–164. Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110456554-006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110456554-006
Masuda, K. and Labarca, A. (2018b). Students’ perception and different performance in a combined usage-based and sociocultural theory approach to learning Japanese polysemous particles. In A. Tyler, L. Ortega, M. Uno, and H. I. Park (Eds), Usageinspired L2 Instruction: Researched Pedagogy, 117–142. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.49.06mas DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.49.06mas
Masuda, K. and Ohta, A. S. (2019). Subjective construal in Japanese: An experiential session with new SCOBAs and their applications to Japanese giving/receiving, benefactives and adversity passive constructions. Presented at the Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning Conference, November 8–10, Carnegie Mellon University.
Maeda, H. (2018). Teaching Self-Deprecating Humor to L2 Japanese Learners using Concept-Based Instruction (CBI): A Qualitative Study of How L2 Japanese Learners Develop Their L2 Discourse and Pragmatic Competence. Unpublished M.A. paper. The University of Washington.
Makino, S. and Tsutsui, M. (1989). A Dictionary of Japanese Grammar. Tokyo: The Japan Times.
Matsumoto, A., Ohta, T., Peters, G., and Suzuki, Y. (2015). Terrace House: Boys and Girls in the City. Netflix.
Matsumoto, Y. (2020). Motion verbs in Japanese. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 430. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.295 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.295
Maynard, S. (1998). Principles of Japanese Discourse: A Handbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620973 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620973
Morita, Y. (2002). Nihongo Bunpoo no Hasso [Perspectives on Japanese Grammar]. Tokyo: Hituzi Shobo.
Moriyama, S. (2007). Ooyo ninchi gengogaku teki na nihongo kyooiku no kokoromi. A tentative on Japanese language education from the applied cognitive linguistics approach2. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cognitive Linguistics Association 7: 111.
Negueruela, E. (2003). A Sociocultural Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Second Languages: Systemic-Theoretical Instruction and L2 Development. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University.
Negueruela, E. (2008). Revolutionary pedagogies: learning that leads (to) second language development. In J. P. Lantolf and M. E. Poehner (Eds), Sociocultural Theory and the Teaching of Second Languages, 189–227. London: Equinox Press.
Negueruela, E. and Lantolf, J. (2006). Concept-based instruction: Teaching grammar in an intermediate-advanced Spanish L2 university classroom. In R. Salaberry and B. Lafford (Eds), The Art of Teaching Spanish: Second Language Acquisition from Research to Praxis, 79–102. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.
Ohta, A. S. (2017). From SCOBA development to implementation in concept-based instruction: Conceptualizing and teaching Japanese addressee honorifics as expressing modes of self. Language and Sociocultural Theory 4(2): 187–218. https://doi.org/10.1558/lst.31492 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1558/lst.31492
Ohta, A. S. and Masuda, K. (2018). Future directions for informed language pedagogy from cognitive linguistics. In K. Masuda (Ed.), Cognitive Linguistics and Japanese Pedagogy Usage-Based Approaches to Language Learning and Instruction, 305–321. Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110456554-011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110456554-011
Ohta, A. S. and Tsujihara, R. (2017). Teaching addressee honorifics in Japanese using concept-based instruction (CBI): A qualitative, intact classroom study. Presented at the conference of the American Association of Applied Linguistics, March 18–21. Portland, OR.
Ogiwara, A. (2007). A grammatically judgment test on the auxiliary verbs te-ageru, te-kureru, and te-morau: in relation to L2 learners’ Japanese course level. ICU Studies in Japanese Language Education 4: 319.
Otsuka, J. (1996). Chuujyokyuu nihongo gakushuusha no shiten hyoogen no hattasu nitvsuite: tachibashikoobun o chuushin ni. [Development of viewpoint by intermediate advancedJFL learners: By focusing on the speaker’s perspective]. Gengo Bunka to Nihongo Kyooiku 9: 281–292.
Sakamoto, T. and Okada, U. (1996). Nihongo no jyushudoshi no shuutoku ni tsuite. [Acquisition of Japanese giving and receiving expressions]. Akademia, 157–202.
Sawada, J. (2004). Nihongo no jyueki koobun to dookidzuke: Ninchi goyooron teki apuroochi [Japanese benefactive constructions and their motivations: Cognitive-pragmatic approach]. Ars Linguistica 11: 156–175.
Shibatani, M. (1996). Applicatives and benefactives: A cognitive account. In M. Shibatani and S. A. Thompson (Eds), Grammatical Constructions: Their Form and Meaning, 157–194. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stam, G. (2013). Second language acquisition and gesture. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford, England: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1049 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1049
Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced language proficiency. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Advanced Language Learning: The Contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky, 95–108. London: Continuum.
Swain, M., Lapkin, S., Knouzi, I., Suzuki, W., and Brooks L. (2009). Languaging: University students learn the grammatical concept of voice in French. The Modern Language Journal 93(1): 529. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00825.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00825.x
Pizziconi, B. (2006). Learning to reframe – Japanese benefactives, metalinguistic beliefs, and identifies of L2 users. In T. Umino and M. Negishi (Eds), Reading in Second Language Pedagogy and Second Language Acquisition: in Japanese Context, 119–153. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/ubli.4.12piz DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/ubli.4.12piz
Talmy, L. (2000). Toward a Cognitive Semantics: Volume I. Concept Structuring Systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/6847.001.0001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/6847.001.0001
Tsujihara, R. (2017). An application of sociocultural theory to teaching aspect in Japanese: Developing learners’ conceptual understanding through concept-based instruction. Presented at the conference of The American Association for Applied Linguistics, March 18–21. Portland, OR.
Tsujihara, R. (2018). Teaching aspectual form in Japanese using concept-based instruction: A case study of intermediate learners. Presented at the conference of The American Association for Applied Linguistics. March 24–27. Chicago, IL.
Tsujihara, R. (2019). Concept-based pragmatics instruction of expressing gratitude in Japanese. Presented at the Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning Conference, November 8–10, Carnegie Mellon University.
van Compernolle, R. A. (2011). Developing second language sociopragmatic knowledge through concept-based instruction: A microgenetic case study. Journal of Pragmatics 43: 3267–3283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.06.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.06.009
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
White, B. (2012). A conceptual approach to the instruction of phrasal verbs. The Modern Language Journal 96(3): 419–433. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01365.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01365.x
Yokota, T. (2009). Nihongo no shiten kara mita jyujyushoogen no doonyuu hoohoo no itikoosatsu [A study of effective methods for introducing giving and receiving verbs as seen from the Japanese speakers’ point of view]. Hokuriku Daigaku Kiyoo 33: 145–151.
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.