SCT and Translanguaging-to-learn
Proposed Conceptual Integration
Keywords:Translanguaging, sociocultural theory, inner speech, concept development, sense and meaning
This paper arose as a result of dialogue between researchers involved in a research project undertaken across England, Finland, France, and Romania. The research aimed to improve the educational experience for Roma children in school, who face sustained racism, discrimination and poverty, alongside reduced levels of access to and inequitable outcomes in education, by focusing on translanguaging as a transformative pedagogy. A close reading of the translanguaging literature revealed an oft assumed sociocultural understanding of learning. This paper is an exploration of the synergies and tensions between sociocultural theory as a learning theory and translanguaging as a theory of language in use and as a pedagogical approach in order to suggest a conceptual integration useful to both. In particular, we focus on the formation and form of Vygostkian inner speech, given its central role in higher mental activity such as learning. We examine movement between external speech in collaborative activity (and to oneself) to condensed inner speech in reimagining Guerrero's (2005) schema, by fusing translanguaging theory with Vygotskian notions of sense and meaning, and everyday and scientific concepts. We also consider translanguaging in joint activity in terms of neo-Vygotskian notions of cumulative and exploratory talk, arguing the usefulness of microgenetic analysis to reveal learning in action within joint activity. The paper therefore provides both a renewal of sociocultural understandings of language and learning, and conceptual tools for a more refined and robust articulation and analysis of the operation of translanguaging-to-learn.
Alderson-Day, B. and Fernyhough, C. (2015). Inner speech: Development, cognitive functions, phenomenology, and neurobiology. Psychological Bulletin 141 (5): 931–965. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000021
Anton, M. and DiCamilla, F. J. (1999). Socio-Cognitive Functions of L1 Collaborative interaction in the L2 Classroom. The Modern Language Journal 83 (2): 233–247. https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00018
Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Barnes, D (2008). Exploratory Talk for Learning. In N. Mercer and S. Hodgkinson (Eds), Exploring Talk in Schools. Inspired by the Work of Douglas Barnes. London: Sage.
Berk, L. E. (1992). Children’s private speech: An overview of theory and the status of research. In L. E. Berk and R. M. Diaz (Eds), Private Speech: From Social Interaction to Self-regulation, 17–53. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Canagarajah, S. (2011). Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review 2: 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239331.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239331.1
Creese, A. and Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for teaching and learning. The Modern Language Journal 94 (1): 103–115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00986.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00986.x
Carruthers, D. and Boucher, J. (1998). Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597909 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597909
Daniel, S. M., Jiménez, R. T. Pray, L., and Pacheco, M. B. (2017). Scaffolding to make translanguaging a classroom norm. Tesol Journal. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.361 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.361
Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In J. P. Lantolf and G. Appel (Eds), Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research, 33–56. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Donato, R. (2000). Sociocultural contributions to understanding the foreign and second language classroom. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, 27–50. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Duarte, J. (2016). Translanguaging in mainstream education: A sociocultural approach. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 22 (2): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1231774 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1231774
Ellis, R. (1999). Learning a Second Language Through Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.17 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.17
Flavell, J. H. (1966). La Langue privé. Bulletin de Psychologie 19: 987–1001.
Fodor, J. A. (1975). The Language of Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Frawley, W. and Lantolf, J. P. (1985). Second language Discourse: A Vygotskyan perspective. Journal of Applied Linguistics 6: 19–44. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/6.1.19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/6.1.19
García, O. (2009). Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: Global Perspectives. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Garcia, O. (2011). The translanguaging of Latino kindergarteners. In K. Potowski and J. Rothman (Eds), Bilingual Youth Spanish in English-speaking societies, 33–56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.42.05gar DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.42.05gar
Garcia, O. and Kleifgen, J. (2010). Educating Emergent Bilinguals: Policies, Programs, and Practices for English Language Learners. New York: Teachers College Press.
García, O. and Kleyn, T. (Eds), (2016). Translanguaging with Multilingual Students: Learning from Classroom Moments. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315695242 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315695242
García, O. and Wei, L. (2014). Translanguaging: Implications for Language, Bilingualism and Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Pivot. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765_4
García, O. and Sylvan, C. E. (2011), Pedagogies and practices in multilingual classrooms: singularities in pluralities. The Modern Language Journal 95 (3): 385–400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01208.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01208.x
García, O. and Leiva, C. (2014). Theorizing and enacting translanguaging for social justice. In A. Blackledge and A. Creese (Eds), Heteroglossia as Practice and Pedagogy, 199–216. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7856-6_11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7856-6_11
García, O., Johnson, S. I. and K. Seltzer (2017). The Translanguaging Classroom. Leveraging Student Bilingualism for Learning. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.
Gatti, R. V., Karacsony, S. I., Anan, K., Ferre, C. and De Paz Nieves, C. (2016). Being Fair, Faring Better: Promoting Equality of Opportunity for Marginalized Roma (English). Washington, DC: World Bank Group. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0598-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0598-1
Guerrero, M. C. M. de. (2005). Inner Speech – L2 Thinking Words in a Second Language. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/b106255 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/b106255
Guerrero, M. C. M. de. (2018). Going Covert: Inner and private speech in language learning. Language Teaching 51 (1): 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000295 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000295
Jones, P. E. (2009). From ‘external speech’ to ‘inner speech’ in Vygotsky: A critical appraisal and fresh perspectives. Language & Communication 29 (2): 166–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2008.12.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2008.12.003
Lantolf, J. P. (Ed.) (2000). Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lantolf, J. P. and Appel, G. (Eds) (1994). Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Lantolf, J. P. and Poehner, M. E. (2014). Sociocultural Theory and the Pedagogical Imperative in L2 Education: Vygotskian Praxis and the Research/Practice Divide. New York and London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203813850 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203813850
Lewis, G., Jones, B., and Baker, C. (2012a). Translanguaging: Origins and development from school to street and beyond. Educational Research and Evaluation 18 (7): 641–654. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.718488 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.718488
Lewis, G., Jones, B., and Baker, C. (2012b). Translanguaging: Developing its conceptualisation and contextualisation. Educational Research and Evaluation 18 (7): 655–670. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.718490 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.718490
Li, S. and Luo W. (2017). Creating a translanguaging space for high school emergent bilinguals. The CATESOL Journal 29 (2): 139–162.
Martin-Beltrán, M. (2014). ‘What do you want to say?’ How adolescents use translanguaging to expand learning opportunities. International Multilingual Research Journal 8 (3): 208–230. https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2014.914372 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2014.914372
McSwan, J. (2017). A multilingual perspective on translanguaging. American Educational Research Journal 54 (1): 167–201. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216683935 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216683935
Mercer, N. (2000). Words and Minds: How we Use Language to Think Together. London: Routledge.
Michell, R and Myles, F. (2016). Second Language Learning Theories (2nd Edition). Abingdon: Routledge.
Moll, L. C. (2014). L. S. Vygotsky and Education. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203156773 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203156773
Ohta, A. S. (2000). Rethinking interaction in SLA: developmentally appropriate assistance in the zone of proximal development and the acquisition of L2 grammar. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, 51–78. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ohta, A. S. (2001). Second Language Acquisition Processes in the Classroom Learning Japanese. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410604712 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410604712
Otheguy, R., García, O., and Reid, W. (2015). Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review 6 (3): 281–307. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2015-0014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2015-0014
Pontier, R. and Gort, M. (2016). Coordinated translanguaging pedagogy as distributed cognition: A Case Study of Two Dual Language Bilingual Education Preschool Coteachers’ Languaging Practices During Shared Book Readings, International Multilingual Research Journal 10 (2): 891–1006. https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2016.1150732 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2016.1150732
Rogoff, B. (1999). Cognitive development through social interaction: Vygotsky and Piaget. In P. Murphy (Ed.), Learners, Learning and Assessment, 69–82. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Smith, H. J. (2007). The social and private worlds of speech: Speech for inter- and intramental activity. Modern Language Journal 91 (3): 341–356. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00584.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00584.x
Smith, H. J. (2006). Playing to learn: A qualitative analysis of bilingual pupil-pupil talk during board game play. Language and Education 20 (5): 415–437. https://doi.org/10.2167/le639.0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2167/le639.0
Szmalec, A., Brysbaert, M., and Duyck, W. (2012). Working memory and (second) language processing. In J. Altarriba and L. Isurin (Eds), Memory, Language, and Bilingualism Theoretical and Applied Approaches, 74–94. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139035279.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139035279.004
Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced second language proficiency. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Advanced Language Learning. The Contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky, 95–108: London: Continuum.
Swain, M., Kinnear, P., and Steinman, L. (2015). Sociocultural Theory in Second Language Education (2nd Edition). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783093182 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783093182
van Lier, L. (2000). From input to affordance: Social-interactive learning from an ecological perspective. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, 163–186. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and Language (newly revised and edited by Alex Kozulin). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and Speech. In R. W. Rieber and A. S. Carton (Eds.), The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky: Volume One: Problems of General Psychology, 392–488. New York: Plenum Press.
Wei, L. (2011). Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics 43: 1222–1235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035
Wei, Li (2018). Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics 39 (1): 9–30. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx039 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx039
Wells, G. (1999). Dialogic Inquiry Towards a Sociocultural Practice and Theory of Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605895 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605895
Williams, C. (1994). Arfarniad o ddulliau dysgu ac addysgu yng nghyd-destun addysg uwchradd ddwyieithog [An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education] (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Wales, Bangor, UK.
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.