The Impact of COVID-19 on Virtual Guitar Communities
An Immersive Netnography
Keywords:COVID-19, guitar communities, online communities, cultural heritage, netnography
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the music industry was already experiencing uncertainty as musicians experimented with new modes of dissemination and monetization following developments in telecommunications. The arrival of the internet instigated varying, sometimes contradictory, cultural concerns including dispersion, dissipation, preservation, development, homogenization and heterogeneity. Guitar players have traditionally formed local networks and communities in geo-located domains. However, in the twenty-first century, community domains also include virtual spaces. An immersive netnographic study investigated activities in online guitar communities from the perspective of UNESCO’s Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Data were analysed using the protocols of Inductive Thematic Analysis generating seven codes, regarding the impact of COVID-19 on virtual guitar communities. Without doubt, the pandemic has had serious negative effects on individual musicians’ and live venues’ income streams. However, it does seem to have acted as a catalyst for fresh vigour within online communities seeking new ways to connect. With more artists sharing and interacting, the result could be a richer environment in the future. However, without a strong recognition of cultural responsibility this richness may result in a homogenous melting pot. Alternatively, it may also bring to light cultural expressions previously suppressed.
Ardévol, Elisenda. 2012. “Virtual/Visual Ethnography”. In Advances in Visual Methodology, edited by Sarah Pink, 74–94. London: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446250921.n5
Atay, Ahmet. 2020. “What is Cyber or Digital Autoethnography?” International Review of Qualitative Research 13/3: 267–79. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940844720934373 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1940844720934373
Avdeeff, Melissa. 2014. “Young People’s Musical Engagement and Technologies of Taste”. In Mediated Youth Cultures: The Internet, Belonging and New Cultural Configurations, edited by Andy Bennett and Brady Robarbs, 130–45. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Behr, Adam. 2020. “Five Ways Musicians are Responding to the Coronavirus Crisis”. The Conversation, 1 May. https://theconversation.com/five-ways-musicians-are-responding-to-the-coronavirus-crisis-137444 (accessed 31 March 2021).
Bengtsson, Stina. 2014. “Faraway, So Close! Proximity and Distance in Ethnography Online”. Media, Culture & Society 36/6: 862–77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443714531195
Bennett, Andy and Kevin Dawe. 2001. Guitar Cultures. Oxford: Berg.
Bennett, Peter, Alex Kendall and Julian McDougall. 2011. After the Media: Culture and Identity in the 21st Century. London: Routledge.
Biasutti, Michele, Roberta Antonini Philippe and Andrea Schiavio. 2021. “Assessing Teachers’ Perspectives on Giving Music Lessons Remotely during the COVID-19 Lockdown Period”. Musicae Scientiae, March. https://doi.org/10.1177/1029864921996033 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1029864921996033
Bienstock, Richard. 2020. “Fender Has Sold More Guitars in 2020 Than Any Other Year in Its History”. Guitar World, 9 September. https://www.guitarworld.com/news/fender-has-sold-more-guitars-in-2020-than-any-other-year-in-its-history#:~:text=News-,Fender%20has%20sold%20more%20guitars%20in%202020,other%20year%20in%20its%20history&text=Best%20of%202020%3A%20It%20was,death%20of%20the%20electric%20guitar.%22 (accessed 30 March 2021).
Bigham, David Joseph. 2013. “Hearing Connections: An Actor-network Study of Online Guitar Activities”. Doctoral thesis, University of California, Oakland, USA.
Botstein, Leon. 2020. “The Future of Music in America: The Challenge of the COVID-19 Pandemic”. The Musical Quarterly 102/4: 351–60. https://doi.org/10.1093/musqtl/gdaa007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/musqtl/gdaa007
Braun, Virginia and Victoria Clarke. 2006.“Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology”. Qualitative Research in Psychology 3/25: 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa DOI: https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Braun, Virginia and Victoria Clarke. 2014. “Thematic Analysis”. In Encyclopaedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, edited by Alex C. Michalos, 6626–28. Dordecht: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_3470
Bryman, Alan. 2016. Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chandler, Simon. 2021. “How Peak Demand and Covid-19 Caused an Electric Guitar Shortage”. Guitar World, 9 March. https://www.guitarworld.com/features/how-peak-demand-and-covid-19-caused-an-electric-guitar-shortage (accessed 30 March 2021).
Chesney, Thomas. 2004. “‘Other People Benefit. I Benefit from their Work’: Sharing Guitar Tabs Online”. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 10/1. https://academic.oup.com/jcmc/article/10/1/JCMC1012/4614460 (accessed 31 March 2021).
Choi, Hwanho and Bernard Burnes. 2013. “The Internet and Value Co-creation: The Case of the Popular Music Industry”. Prometheus 31/1: 35–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/08109028.2013.774595 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08109028.2013.774595
Clark, Andrew, Caroline Holland, Jeanne Katz and Sheila Peace. 2009. “Learning to See: Lessons from a Participatory Observation Research Project in Public Spaces”. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 12/4: 345–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645570802268587 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13645570802268587
Clayton, Martin. 2001. “Rock to Raga: The Many Lives ofthe Indian Guitar”. In Guitar Cultures, edited by Andy Bennett and Kevin Dawe, 179–208. Oxford: Berg. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003085522-10
Cole, Jeffrey I. 2009. The Digital Future Report 2009: Surveying the Digital Future, Year 8: 15 Years of Internet Use. https://www.digitalcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/2009_digital_future_report-year8.pdf (accessed 31 March 2021).
Conversi, Danielle. 2010. “The Limits of Cultural Globalisation?” Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies 3: 36–59.
Crosby, Paul and Jordi McKenzie. 2021. “Survey Evidence on the Impact of COVID-19 on Australian Musicians and Implications for Policy”. International Journal of Cultural Policy 28/2: 166–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2021.1916004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2021.1916004
Cruz, Analy. 2021. “COVID-19’s Impact on the Live Music Industry”. Backstage Pass 4/1: 10. https://scholarlycommons.pacific.edu/backstage-pass/vol4/iss1/10
Davids, Paul. 2020. “10 Guitarists Improvise over the Same Track”. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tl8CaZVMQzw&ab_channel=PaulDavids (accessed 24 March 2021).
Dawe, Kevin. 2010. The New Guitarscape in Critical Theory, Cultural Practice and Music Performance. Farnham: Ashgate.
Dawe, Kevin. 2013. “Guitar Ethnographies: Performance, Technology and Material Culture”. Ethnomusicology Forum 22/1: 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/17411912.2013.774158 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17411912.2013.774158
Decca Records Music. 2020. “You’ll Never Walk Alone - Captain Tom Moore, Michael Ball & The NHS Voices of Care Choir”. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LcouA_oWsnU&ab_channel=DeccaRecordsMusic (accessed 30 September 2021).
Fender. 2021. “Fender Play”. https://try.fender.com/play/play-now-2021 (accessed 20 September 2021).
Frick, Ulrich, Miles Tallon, Karina Gotthardt, Matthias Seitz and Katrin Rakoczy. 2021. “Cultural Withdrawal during COVID-19 Lockdown: Impact in a Sample of 828 Artists and Recipients of Highbrow Culture in Germany”. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/aca0000389 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000389
Gouzouasis, Peter. 2005. “Fluency in General Music and Arts Technologies: Is the Future of Music a GarageBand Mentality?” Action, Criticism and Theory for Music Education 4/2. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter-Gouzouasis/publication/234758754_Fluency_in_General_Music_and_Arts_Technologies_Is_the_Future_of_Music_a_Garage_Band_Mentality/links/0deec51b277b35c536000000/Fluency-in-General-Music-and-Arts-Technologies-Is-the-Future-of-Music-a-Garage-Band-Mentality.pdf (accessed 2 October 2020).
Gouzouasis, Peter and Danny Bakan. 2011. “The Future of Music Making and Music Education in a Transformative Digital World”. UNESCO Observatory, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne Refereed E-journal 2/2: 21.
Gray, Patty A. 2016. “Memory, Body, and the Online Researcher: Following Russian Street Demonstrations via Social Media”. American Ethnologist 43/3: 500–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/amet.12342
Guest, Greg, Kathleen M. MacQueen and Emily E. Namey. 2014. Applied Thematic Analysis. Los Angeles: Sage Publications
Hendrickse, Jan and Nathan Thomson. 2005. “Transcultural Arts Practice”. In The Reflective Conservatoire: Studies in Music Education, edited by George Odam and Nicholas Bannan, 379–410. London: The Guildhall School of Music & Drama and Ashgate Publishing.
Hinchliffe, Jessica. 2020. “Pub Choir’s Evolution to Couch Choir Brings Light during Coronavirus Crisis with Close to You”. ABC News, 23 March. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-03-23/pub-choir-coronavirus-inspired-couch-event-draws-1000-singers/12080702 (accessed 20 September 2021).
Hunt, Margaret. 2020. Initial Impacts of the COVID-19 Crisis on the Music Industry in Colorado and the Denver Metropolitan Region. Colorado State University LEAP Institute for the Arts Regional Economic Development Institute. https://redi.colostate.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/50/2020/08/Music_Industry_COVID_Final.pdf
Hunter, Albert. 1993. “Local Knowledge and Local Power: Notes on the Ethnography of Local Community Elites”. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22/1: 36–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124193022001004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/089124193022001004
Jablonska, Barbara. 2021. “The Virus as a Catalyst for Culture? Sociological Reflections Using as Example the Musical Practices during the COVID-19 Pandemic”. Kultura i Spoleczenstwo 65/1: 145–64. Polska Akademia Nauk Komitet Socjologii Instytut Studiów Politycznych. https://doi.org/10.35757/KiS.2021.65.1.6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35757/KiS.2021.65.1.6
Joseph, Dawn and Lucy Lennox. 2021. “Twists, Turns and Thrills during COVID-19: Music Teaching and Practice in Australia”. Music Education Research 23/2: 241–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/14613808.2021.1906852 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14613808.2021.1906852
Keen, Andrew. 2008. The Cult of the Amateur: How Blogs, MySpace, YouTube, and the Rest of Today’s User-generated Media are Destroying Our Economy, Our Culture, and Our Values. Toronto, ON: Doubleday.
Keisuke, Yamada. 2017. “Shamisen Skin on the Verge of Extinction: Musical Sustainability and Non-scalability of Cultural Loss”. Ethnomusicology Forum 26/3: 373–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17411912.2018.1423575
Kelsey-Sugg, Anna and Michael Mackenzie. 2020. “We’re turning to music amid the coronavirus crisis—and that’s a little bit of history repeating”. ABC Radio National. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-29/coronavirus-history-music-helps-in-times-of-crisis/12175952 (accessed 31 March 2021).
Kibby, Marjorie D. 2000. “Home on the Page: A Virtual Place of Music Community”. Popular Music 19/1: 91–100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261143000000064
Klopper, Christopher. 2010. “Intercultural Musicianship: A Collective and Participatory Form of Music Exchange across the Globe”. Australian Journal of Music Education 44/1: 48–57.
Koeze, Ella and Nathaniel Popper. 2020. “The Virus Changed the Way We Internet”. New York Times, 7 April. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/07/technology/coronavirus-internet-use.html (accessed 31 March 2021).
Kono, Toshiyuki. 2010. The Impact of Uniform Laws on the Protection of Cultural Heritage and the Preservation of Cultural Heritage in the 21st Century. Leiden: Brill. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004180444.I-786
Kornhaber, Spencer. 2020. “Pop music’s version of life doesn’t exist anymore: What good are songs about touch and sweat during a pandemic”. The Atlantic, 19 March. https://www.theatlantic.com/culture/archive/2020/03/what-good-is-pop-musicduring-the-coronavirus-pandemic/607894/
Kot, Greg. 2009. Ripped: How the Wired Generation Revolutionized Music. New York: Scribner.
Kozinets, Robert V. 2009. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. London: Sage Publications.
Kozinets, Robert V. 2020. Netnography: The Essential Guide to Qualitative Social Media Research. London: Sage Publications. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003001430-2
Langley, Michelle and Leah Coutts. 2020. “Why Do We Turn to Music in Times of Crisis?”World Economic Forum, 30 March. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/coronavirus-music-covid-19-community/ (accessed 31 March 2021).
Lee, Daniel. 2020. “Guitar Tuition in Australian Tertiary Institutions: Impact of Contemporary Music Pedagogies”. Doctoralthesis,University of Tasmania. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.18385.97122
Lee, Daniel. 2021. “Favorite YouTube Guitar Teachers among ‘Top Guitar Players’ Facebook Community Members”. Academia Letters, Article 3056. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3056 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3056
Lee, Daniel, William J. Baker and NickHaywood. 2019. Engaging with 21st Century Methodologies in Contemporary Education Research: Developing a Multi-sited, Distance, Online Ethnography. Paper presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the Florida Educational Research Association. St Petersburg, Florida, 13 November.
Lee, Daniel, William J. Baker and Nick Haywood. 2020. “Coronavirus, the Cultural Catalyst”. Working in Music, International Music Research Network, 25 May. https://wim.hypotheses.org/1302 (accessed 16 October 2020).
Martin, Judith N. and Thomas K. Nakayama. 2007. Intercultural Communication in Contexts. 4th edn. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Mazzola, Alessandro and Marco Martiniello. 2021. “Covid-19 and the Live Music Sector”. Social Cartographies 10/11: 165–78. https://orbi.uliege.be/handle/2268/262932
M’Balia, Thomas. 2020. “Virtual Teaching in the Time of COVID-19: Rethinking Our WEIRD Pedagogical Commitments to Teacher Education”. Frontiers in Education 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.595574 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.595574
Moon, Sarah. 2020. “Effects of COVID-19 on the Entertainment Industry”. IDOSR Journal of Experimental Sciences 5/1: 8–12.
Musaeva, Mayya, Clare Chan Suet Ching and Christine Augustine. 2017. “Application of Ivan Galamian Principlesfor Violin Learning through Malaysian Folk Tunes”. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 7/11: 522–36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i11/3493
Nofre, Jordi, Manuel Garcia-Ruiz, Iñigo Sánchez Fuarros and Cristiana Vale Pires. 2021. “Hopes and Uncertainties in the Post-Covid-19 European Nightlife Industry”. Finisterre 55/115: 249–54. https://doi.org/10.18055/Finis20160
O’Connor, Justin. 2020. “Art and Culture after Covid-19”. (Blog post). https://wakeinalarm.blog/2020/04/09/art-and-culture-after-covid-19/ (accessed 31 March 2021).
Onderdijk, Kelsey E., Dana Swarbrick, Bavo Van Kerrebroeck, Maximillian Mantei, Jonna K. Vuoskoski, Pieter-Jan Maes and Marc Leman. 2021. “Livestream Experiments: The Role of COVID-19, Agency, Presence, and Social Context in Facilitating Social Connectedness”. Frontiers in Psychology 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647929 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647929
Otchere, Eric. 2015. “Music Teaching and the Process of Enculturation: A Cultural Dilemma”. British Journal of Music Education 32/3: 291–97. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0265051715000352 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0265051715000352
Pash, Chris. 2020. “Pandemic Habits: We’ve Turned to Social Media during COVID-19”. Adnews, 22 July. https://www.adnews.com.au/news/pandemic-habits-we-ve-turned-to-social-media-during-covid-19 (accessed 31 March 2021).
Pollock, Della. 2006. “Marking New Directions in Performance Ethnography”. Text and Performance Quarterly 26/4: 325–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10462930600828733
Postill, John. 2008. “Localizing the Internet beyond Communities and Networks”. New Media & Society 10/3: 413–31. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444808089416 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444808089416
Postill, John. 2016. “Doing Remote Ethnography”. https://cva.unifr.ch/content/postill-2016-doing-remote-ethnography (accessed 19 April 2022).
Postill, John and Sarah Pink. 2012. “Social Media Ethnography: The Digital Researcher in a Messy Web”. Media International Australia 145 (November): 123–34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1329878X1214500114
Pub Choir. 2020. “Couch Choir - (They Long To Be) Close To You”. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HezxInuN1YA&ab_channel=PubChoir (accessed 30 September 2021).
Putipumnak, Khanithep. 2018. “Paradigm forthe Development of a Lanna Music Curriculum in High Education in Northern Thailand”. Malaysian Journal of Music 7: 38–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37134/mjm.vol7.3.2018
Ratten, Vanessa. 2021. “Coronavirus (Covid-19) and Entrepreneurship: Cultural, Lifestyle and Societal Changes”. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies 13/4: 747–61. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEEE-06-2020-0163 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JEEE-06-2020-0163
Reason, Peter and Hilary Bradbury, eds. 2008. The Sage Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848607934
Regelski, Thomas A. and J. Terry Gates. 2009. Music Education for Changing Times: Guiding Visions for Practice. New York: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2700-9
Reily, Suzel Ana. 2001. “Hybridity and Segregation in the Guitar Cultures of Brazil”. In Guitar Cultures, edited by Andy Bennett and Kevin Dawe, 157–78. Oxford: Berg. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003085522-9
Rheingold, Howard. 1993. The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley.
Riddings, Catherine M., David Gefen and Bay Arinze. 2002. “Some Antecedents and Effects of Trust in Virtual Communities”. Journal of Strategic Information Systems 11: 271–95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-8687(02)00021-5
Robertson, Roland. 1995. “Glocalization: Time-space and Homogeneity-heterogeneity”. Global Modernities 2/1: 25–44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446250563.n2
Rodrigo y Gabriela. 2020. “Rodrigo y Gabriela - We invite you to “Music From the field” our new Patreon”. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWXuUuEnlZ4&ab_channel=RodrigoyGabriela (accessed 31 March 2021).
Sarantakos, Sotirios. 2013. Social Research. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-29247-6
Shah, Shahanum Mohamad and Zaharul Lailiddin Saidon. 2017. “Developing a Graded Examination for the Malay Gamelan”. Malaysian Music Journal 6/1: 14–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37134/mjm.vol184.108.40.2067
Shriram, Ketaki and Raz Schwartz. 2017. “All are Welcome: Using VR Ethnography to Explore Harassment Behavior in Immersive Social Virtual Reality”. 2017 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), Los Angeles, CA: 225–26. https://doi.org/10.1109/VR.2017.7892258 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/VR.2017.7892258
Shumba, Ano. 2020. “Call for Applications: COVID-19 Funding for Artists and Activists”. Music in Africa, 14 April. https://www.musicinafrica.net/magazine/call-applications-covid-19-funding-artists-and-activists (accessed 31 March 2021).
Sim, Jaeung, Daegon Cho, Youngdeok Hwang and Rahul Telang. 2020. “Virus Shook the Streaming Star: Estimating the COVID-19 Impact on Music Consumption”. SSRN Electron. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3649085 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3649085
Sirek, Danielle. 2018. “Our Culture is Who We are! ‘Rescuing’ Grenadian Identity through Musicking and Music Education”. International Journal of Music Education 36/1: 47–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761417703783 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761417703783
Skujins, Angela. 2020. “South Australia’s Arts Community is Still Hoping for a COVID Lifeline”. Citymag, 1 December. https://citymag.indaily.com.au/culture/south-australias-arts-community-is-still-hoping-for-a-covid-lifeline/ (accessed 31 March 2021).
Snapes, Laura. 2020. “Captain Tom Moore Becomes Oldest Artist to Claim UK No 1 Single”. The Guardian, 25 April. https://www.theguardian.com/music/2020/apr/24/captain-tom-moore-becomes-oldest-artist-to-claim-uk-no-1-single (accessed 20 September 2021).
Strong, Catherine and Fabian Cannizzo. 2020. Understanding Challenges to the Victorian Music Industry during COVID-19. Melbourne: RMIT University. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5b88e39855b02ce9bc082fcf/t/6025f440368a713f9ba08f6a/1613100101425/Understanding+Challenges+to+the+Victorian+Music+Industry+During+COVID-19+-+Research.pdf
Taylor, Iain A., Sarah Raine and Craig Hamilton. 2020. “COVID-19 and the UK Live Music Industry: A Crisis of Spatial Materiality”. Journal of Media Art, Study and Theory 1/2: 219–41.
Tong, Ho Kin and Lin Hong Cheung. 2011. “Cultural Identity and Language: A Proposed Framework for Cultural Globalisation and Glocalisation”. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 32/1: 55–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2010.527344 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2010.527344
Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. 2017. “On Nonscalability: The Living World is Not Amenable to Precision-Nested Scales”. Common Knowledge 18/3: 505–524. https://doi.org/10.1215/0961754X-1630424 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/0961754X-1630424
UNESCO. 2003. Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. https://ich.unesco.org/doc/src/01852-EN.pdf (accessed 31 March 2021).
UNESCO. 2020. “COVID-19 Response”. https://en.unesco.org/creativity/covid-19 (accessed 31 March 2021).
Vakeva, Lauri. 2010. “Garage Band or GarageBand? Remixing Musical Futures”. British Journal of Music Education 27/1: 59–70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0265051709990209
Vandenberg, Femke, Michael Berghman and Julian Schaap. 2020. “The ‘Lonely Raver’: Music Livestreams during COVID-19 as a Hotline to Collective Consciousness?” European Societies 23/1: 141–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2020.1818271 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2020.1818271
van Hulst, Merlin J. 2008. “Quite an Experience: Using Ethnography to Study Local Governance”. Critical Policy Studies 2/2: 143–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/19460171.2008.9518535 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19460171.2008.9518535
Vasseur, C. 2020. COVID-? https://christianvasseur.bandcamp.com/album/covid (accessed 2 September 2021).
Waldron, Janice. 2009. “Exploring a Virtual Music Community of Practice: Informal Music Learning on the Internet”. Journal of Music, Technology and Education 2/3: 112–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1386/jmte.2.2-3.97_1
Warnecke, Lauren. 2020. “Art and Performance during the Time of COVID-19 Lockdown”. Agenda 34/3: 145–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/10130950.2020.1783889 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10130950.2020.1783889
Watson, Annette and Karen E. Till. 2009. “Ethnography and Participant Observation”. In The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Geography, edited by Dydia DeLyser, Linda McDowell, Mike Crang, Steve Herbert and Stuart Aitken, 121–37. London: SAGE Publications.
Weber, David. 2021. “Isolation and No Competition a Boost for WA’s Music Industry amid Coronavirus”. ABC News, 24 January. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-01-24/wa-live-music-scene-boosted-during-covid-19-pandemic/13085590 (accessed 31 March 2021).
Wenger, Etienne. 1998. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932
Wiedemann, Crystal. 2020. “The Great Transformation? The Cultural Implications of COVID-19”. Barrett Values Centre. https://www.valuescentre.com/resource-library/covid/
Woodfield, Kandy. 2018. The Ethics of Online Research. Bingley, UK: Emerald. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/S2398-6018201802
Yildiz, Yalçin, Ece Karsal and Hakan Bagci. 2021. “Examining the Instructors’ Perspectives on Undergraduate Distance Learning Music Instrument Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic”. Journal of Pedagogical Research 5/2: 184–206. https://doi.org/10.33902/JPR.2021270107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.33902/JPR.2021270107
Yuan, Eric S. 2020. “A Message to Our Users”. Zoom Company News. https://blog.zoom.us/a-message-to-our-users/ (accessed 31 March 2021).
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.