Polish Hip Hop at Home and Abroad

Return Migration in the Work of Taco Hemingway


  • Kamila Rymajdo University of Central Lancashire




Hip hop, Polish hip hop, Migration, Social remittances


Taco Hemingway is one of Poland’s most popular rappers, becoming the first Polish artist to be streamed a billion times on Spotify. Often described as a fresh voice in the Polish hip hop scene, Hemingway also offers a new perspective due to his status as a return migrant, having lived in the United Kingdom. As such, this article positions Hemingway’s output in the context of migration studies and, specifically, the impact migration has on sending countries. Through Hemingway’s music, the article examines the various stages of migration, from experiences abroad to return and circular migration, while also appraising Hemingway’s work within the context of social remittances—the impact that return migrants have on stayers. It also posits that Hemingway’s oeuvre represents the failure of the “Grand Narrative” of Polish migration, as well as the dissatisfaction that return migrants can feel upon return, choosing ultimately to go back to the country to which they emigrated. 

Author Biography

  • Kamila Rymajdo, University of Central Lancashire

    Kamila Rymajdo received a Creative Writing PhD from Kingston University, London. Previously she studied English Language and Literature at the University of Manchester, where she also completed an MA. She has published on music, literature and cinema in journals such as Popular Music (Cambridge University Press), Popular Music History (Equinox) and edited collections Contemporary Cinema and Ideology (Routledge), Heading North (Palgrave Macmillan) and Popular Music in the Post-Digital Age (Bloomsbury). As a journalist, she writes for music and popular culture magazines including Mixmag, Dazed and Vice.


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How to Cite

Rymajdo, K. . (2024). Polish Hip Hop at Home and Abroad: Return Migration in the Work of Taco Hemingway. Journal of World Popular Music, 10(2), 163–187. https://doi.org/10.1558/jwpm.22212